Horizon, Host: Ted Simons

November 29, 2007


Host: Ted Simons

French Fry Trucks


  • An Arizona Carls Jr. franchisee has converted his company's trucks to run on french fry oil.
Guests:
  • Karen Nicodemus - President, Arizona Board of Education
  • Cathie Raymond - Director, Career and Technical Education, Marana Unified School District
  • Egil Krogh - Nixon aide and leader investigator of "plumbers" unit of Watergate fame
Category: Energy

View Transcript
>>Ted Simons:
Tonight on "Horizon," more math and science could be added to get a high school diploma. We'll tell you more about that. President Nixon's head "plumber" Egil "bud" Krogh, tells the amazing story of when Elvis Presley came calling at the white house. And we'll tell you about a truck powered by oil used to cook French fries. All that's next on "Horizon."

>>Announcer:
"Horizon" is made possible by contributions from the friends of eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.

>>Ted Simons:
Hello and welcome to "Horizon." I'm Ted Simons. In the news today, a ruling in favor of individual first amendment rights from an Arizona appellate court. A Scottsdale based company "the suggestion box, incorporated," won a case in the Arizona court of appeals regarding anonymous speech on the internet. The case involved an anonymous email sent to a C.E.O. of a company in Seattle, chiding him for an email he sent to his mistress. Mobilisa, a wireless and mobile provider, subpoenaed the suggestion box to get the identity of the email sender. The suggestion box provides anonymous email service through its theanonymousemail.com web site. The suggestion box refused to provide the records, and the court ruled in its favor today. However, the judge said that an anonymous emailer's identity might be obtained through the courts if the interests of those suing to get the ID outweigh the speaker's interest in remaining anonymous. The case was sent the case back to a lower court for a ruling on that. Arizona high school students will have to take more math and science classes to graduate if new rules are adopted by the state board of education. As David Majure reports, they may also have a choice between two different kinds of diplomas.

>>Speaker:
My reason for being here is not so much for or against right now, but I would like to get clarification on some issues, if that would be possible.

>>David Majure:
November 13th, a public hearing sponsored by the state board of education, gave people an opportunity to comment on proposed changes to Arizona's high school graduation requirements. About a dozen people showed up, mostly educators involved in career and technical education or C.T.E., you may remember it as vocational education.

>>Brian Forstall:
Career and technical education becomes a red-headed stepchild, and everybody is going to be on track to go to college.

>>David Majure:
There to comment on the series of rules that if approved will be phased in starting with the freshman class of 2008. Fully implemented and in effect for the graduating class of 2013. In order to earn a diploma, the students would need 22 credits, up by 20. Half credit in economics, but the number of electives needed to graduate shrinks by one and a half credits.

>>Gregory Donovan:
I would like the state board to present to the public the research that shows increasing credits does anything for success in college.

>>David Majure:
Another rule would create a personal curriculum, an alternate math requirement for students having a tough time passing algebra two. A rule that establishes a duel diploma system, a regular and a regents diploma that would be aligned with credit requirements. The regents diploma requires more advanced math course work, one fine arts credit instead of a course between fine arts or a C.T.E. course, it requires two credits in a foreign language.

>>Brian Forstall:
Regarding the duel-diploma system, I think we need to raise the bar for all students and not divide our youth into a two class system.

>>David Majure:
The state board of education is expected to make a final decision on the proposed rules at its meeting December 10th in Phoenix.

>>Ted Simons:
Joining me to talk about the proposed rule changes are Karen Nicodemus, president of the Arizona Board of Education, and Cathie Raymond, director of career and technical education for the Marana unified school district. Thank you both for joining us. What are we trying to accomplish with this?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
We are trying to accomplish a number of things. Number one, we're trying to certainly ensure that the students that are graduating from high school prepared for the 21st century and what they're going to really come out and compete in terms of the workplace. When we look at what are some of the skills required, there is a national effort, and many states looking at the graduation requirements and make sure that students are prepared for both work and college, which in the 21st century very similar in terms of the expectations. We're trying to really assume, and from the literature understand a large majority of students go to higher education, a lot of jobs require higher education. Having our systems work together so that our students can see a greater success as they move through the pipeline.

>>Ted Simons:
And the districts, how do the districts feel about this? Is this added pressure, one more thing to pile on top of everything else?

>>Cathie Raymond:
It is. Also the concern of where we will find math teachers, where we will put them, how it will affect the elective classes, in particular career and technical education.

>>Ted Simons:
And yet we get study after study showing that math and science, especially education in Arizona needs to be improved, in this growing, global economy. This looks like one method.

>>Cathie Raymond:
It does. Also we can look at career and technical education as applying the math and the science and showing students how it is relevant and how it will be relevant in their careers and in the 21st century.

>>Ted Simons:
Give us an example of how that might work.

>>Cathie Raymond:
Well, for instance, with the engineering programs, definitely will be a lot of math in there. Students will understand how they have to take that math and apply it to a career focus. When we look in programs such as medical laboratory assisting, definitely a lot of science involved in those programs. The amount of math that is involved in automotives now is quite intensive.

>>Ted Simons:
Karen, are we saying, is this a de facto admission that we are not teaching enough math and science, or the kind of thing it has to be taught differently? Why isn't what we're doing right now enough?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
First of all we need to acknowledge in 60\% of the districts throughout the state of Arizona, requiring more than the minimum state requirements. One of the things the state board has considered when you have a comparison on a state by state basis, the comparison made on the state's requirements. In many ways districts are in front of the state. I think the state needs to look at what best prepares those students. Five years ago I may have had a different answer, also coming from the community college -- I would say knowledge as much about lack of alignment between the systems, lack of communicating to students while they're in high school what the expectations are, giving them multiple pathways. I agree with Cathie's perspective, part of what we need to do is increase the graduation requirements without increasing graduation rates will do nothing for us. The state board recognizes a number of system issues to be addressed, and we recognized there has to be multiple pathways and ways to make the higher expectations relevant for students to help them be successful.

>>Ted Simons:
Added classes, lab space, teachers, money, money, money, how does that work out? How does that balance?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
Again, I think from the state board, and I would say the state board has had a number of study sessions. What is the right thing to do for students to enhance their success in the 21st century? We started and talked about that. I think the question if you define this is the right thing to do, then what can you reasonably hope to do or expect to do? You're right. It will require more resources. There is a part of me that firmly believes this is the right thing for students. Our districts need support. Teachers need support. 21st century learning environment with high expectations with high support. If we're going to have the kind of economic vitality that I believe the state of Arizona aspires to, high demand, high wage jobs, not just about a job, having a job that gives a person a livable wage that allows for opportunities throughout their lifetime, we have to look at do we have an educated work force to support that? I would say we need more of our students, one, graduating from high school, and, two, being prepared for work and college.

>>Ted Simons:
I know that the C.T.E. folks were concerned about the duel-diploma idea. Talk about that.

>>Cathie Raymond:
With the regents diploma, the requirement includes a fine art, and the state diploma, it is C.T.E. or fine arts. We feel that that kind of lowers the status somewhat, because regents is kind of a name that everyone -- regents, you know, an important name. On the other hand, we also believe that it could be cheating those students that are on that regent's track from actually participating in rigorous, relevant contextual learning, hands-on learning that may be important for them to gain a career that they will be happy with.

>>Ted Simons:
How has C.T.E. changed from what we used to remember as vocational education?

>>Cathie Raymond:
Well, now I think the emphasis in a lot of -- in most of the C.T.E. programs is the hands-on, relevancy, and also I don't know the C.T.E. program that doesn't encourage students for life long learning. And we talk about post secondary, not being just university and community college, but also technical schools, apprenticeships. A whole variety of learning opportunities out there. We try to be prepare students for that seamless transition from the high school into a career, further training where they will be successful.

>>Ted Simons:
Is there a danger where you get so caught up in what you're caught up in, that you don't -- doesn't have enough math or science involved in that core, that you would get lost, and I wind up in a program like this added requirements would help you?

>>Cathie Raymond:
I'm not sure about that. It could if we could have some of those -- the cross credits, if some courses could count as a mat credit or a science credit. I think if raising the -- raising the bar is important, I have no problems with that, but I think we need to look at the whole picture.

>>Ted Simons:
Elective courses, part of the whole picture. These kinds of other outside activities, things that aren't necessarily on a track, are they going to get lost in the shuffle here with added science, added math?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
I think when the -- the state board has really, number one, colleagues on the state board have been deliberate and very thoughtful in their discussion, and those issues have been -- have been part of our deliberations, and I would say as we look at the standard diploma, we have tried to build in flexibility, multiple pathways and accomplish what some of what Kathy has described, a student might be in a career technical program, math to a level as defined in the graduation requirement -- we have looked at ways that a student can actually not meet the credit hour requirement, but they may be able to take a course that would meet both the graduation requirement and in some ways really allow additional flexibility around the electives. So, absolutely, I think we're trying to build a pathway that increases rigor, provides for multiple pathways, recognizes relevance is critical, many students will find that relevance through their electives. That is all important to us. I think that we have tried to address some of that as best we can within the confines of the language that we have to deal with.

>>Ted Simons:
What would your recommendation be to the board?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
My recommendation to the board, on December 10th, another public hearing tomorrow about the rules, and certainly the state board will be interested in the testimony that we receive, you know, I believe that the standard diploma is appropriate. I think it tries to bring into play all of those things that I just described. I think the technical education folks and other folks have raised legitimate issues in relation to the regents diploma. The state board needs to step back and decide if we're ready to move forward or we need more time to study. I favor some way to articulate to the students what are the expectations to the universities. The universities need to be at the table and the community colleges talking about how we provide multiple pathways to have more students move through.

>>Ted Simons:
We will stop it right there. Thank you for joining us.

>>Karen Nicodemus:
Thank you.

>>Cathie Raymond:
Thank you.

>>Ted Simons:
The national archives yesterday released correspondence from the Nixon presidency. One letter was from Nixon aide Egil Krogh. Krogh was thanking a friend for helping secure a bureau of narcotics and dangerous drugs badge for Elvis Presley. "The King" showed up at the white house in 1970, requesting the badge because he had a collection of badges and because he wanted to be something of a roving narcotics agent to help fight the war on drugs. Of course, Presley was to die later of a heart attack brought on by years of prescription drug abuse. Recently Krogh, who headed up the infamous special investigation unit or "plumbers" of Watergate fame was at ASU. Larry Lemmons, spoke with the man who was in the office when the president met "the king."

>>Larry Lemmons:
I have to ask you, first of all, about the very iconic moment in American history, that meeting between Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon. You had set that up.

>>Egil Krough:
I set the meeting up. That remains, I think, the most incredible experience in my government career. Elvis Presley showed up totally unexpectedly at the northwest gate and handed a letter to the guard. In the letter he told the president he wanted to help the country out. I got that letter because he also mentioned he wanted to help on the drug program. I read it. I said we ought to talk to this guy to see whether or not he might be able to help us out. I talked to Dwight Chapin, who is the president's scheduling secretary and I said I will meet with Elvis and Sonny West and Jerry Shilling --

>>Larry Lemmons:
The two body guards.

>>Egil Krough:
The body guards that come with him to see if it was for real. I called the Washington hotel. Jerry answered the phone and he said why don't you come over and let's talk about this. Elvis Presley walked in wearing a purple velvet cape, white silk shirt, purple pants, gold belt buckle that I think reflected setting some kind of attendance record in Las Vegas. We talked about his service to the country. He believed in the country, and why he had gone in the army and not tried to avoid service, and I was blown away by it. First I should say I was a huge fan of Elvis Presley. This was a great opportunity. I wrote a memo to the president. How we should have Elvis come in. We got approval from Bob Haldeman. The meeting was about to start and I got a call from Secret Service. They said we have a little problem. I said what's that? He's brought a gun.

>>Larry: Elvis with a gun.

>>Egil Krough:
Elvis with a gun, Larry. The secret service guys said a nice gun, a colt 45, World War II pistol, but it's got bullets in the case. I had to go over and explain that we can't take guns into the oval office, standard policy around here. He took that in good grace. Then we walked into the oval office, Elvis and myself, the president was there. Elvis has entertained millions of people. This will be easy for him. Not so. He walked in and he stopped. And I had to usher him across the carpet over to the president's desk, and the president came out from behind the desk and they shook hands and Elvis was clutching badges and pictures. He put them on the desk. The president took him over to the flags. The photograph of Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon in front of those flags is the most requested photograph of any of the national archives. They have sold over 39,000 copies of that at ten dollars a pop.

>>Larry Lemmons:
I think, too, part of that, there is that certain irony that he ended up dying from a drug overdose, prescription drugs, what was he after at that time?

>>Egil Krough:
Well, he had, I think, a hidden agenda. He had gone to the bureau of narcotics and dangerous drugs and asked for a badge. They turned him down, as properly they should have. He told John Finn later that I am going to go to the white house and get a badge. He said that's the only place you are going to get one. So he came over, halfway through our conversation, we talked about the Beatles and playing Las Vegas and all of the things that I thought were sort of strange --

>>Larry Lemmons:
He didn't appreciate the Beatles at that time because of the antiwar sentiment.

>>Egil Krough:
He felt they came over and said things against America and made a lot of money. Elvis was a deep patriot. He felt strongly. About halfway through he said Mr. President, can you get me a badge from the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs? The President looked at me and said bud; can we get him a badge? I said well, sir, if you want to get him a badge we can do that. He said make sure he gets one. Elvis steps forward and grabs the president; he hugs him. One of the more inviting pictures from that meeting was the president being hugged by Elvis Presley. You know -- president hugging wasn't the norm in that white house. Elvis asked if his body guards could come in. The Memphis mafia, and the president looked at me and said, bud, do we have time for that? I said yes, sir. We welcomed them in. I told the secret service to have them come in. The president, to try to wrap up the meeting, went behind his desk, opened the bottom left hand drawer where the presents were, or gifts that the president would give to visitors of the oval office, and they were arranged in order of value, the cheapest to the most expensive. And he is leaning over, and I had never seen this before. Elvis walked behind the desk with the president, and one of my abiding memories is well, are there -- the two of them going through the bottom left hand drawer. Remember, Mr. President, they have wives and sweethearts, and out come the 16 karat gold bracelets, reaching deep into the drawer to bring this out. They were there for 35 minutes and finished all of their Christmas shopping in about four minutes going through the drawer towards the end of the meeting.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Isn't it extraordinary how in that time, people look back, they remember Watergate and remember a lot of things like that, but that image has stuck in the people's minds more so I think than a lot --

>>Egil Krough:
I think that's true. The juxtaposition, the bringing together of two people where it just doesn't quite compute.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Sure.

>>Egil Krough:
Why are they there? But, there were so many similarities, both came from poor backgrounds, had risen through hard work and discipline and effort to the tops of their professions, and something happened during that meeting that I found out about later after Mr. Nixon had resigned. He suffered a bout of phlebitis, he was in the hospital. Elvis called him up. He said I'm praying for you, I hope you're feeling better. Three years later Elvis is in the hospital, Mr. Nixon called him up and said the same thing. Something happened. When you go to the Nixon Library, you will see the gun Elvis brought to him. When you go to Graceland, you will see the badge. It was a short period of time, 35 minutes, but something; some cord was struck in both of them that showed that they had some recognition of each other's lives and what they were.

>>Ted Simons:
Although Krogh was Nixon's original "plumber," he was not involved in the Watergate break-in, but instead authorized the break-in to Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office in the pentagon papers scandal. Imagine powering a vehicle with the oil that is used to make French fries. Producer Christopher Conover says you can smell the vehicle coming down the road.

>>Christopher Conver:
Looking for a quick bite to eat and you dash into a Carl's junior, maybe grab fries. But that snack is doing more than filling you up. Actually it is filling up the cars and trucks that keep Carl's junior running in Arizona. That's because the fleet runs on vegetable oil.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We actually set up a mini vegetable gas station -- all of our employees that are out in the field using our vehicles, are regional managers, maintenance technicians, up there for meetings once a meet. They will fill the tank. If they need a refill, they come back to the office, we have it set up and they can refill up there. In an emergency, we instruct them to go to the grocery store and buy vegetable oil and power it into the tank. People watch in amazement that you are pouring vegetable oil into your vehicle.

>>Christopher Conver:
The idea came after reading a newspaper article.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
I thought at first this had to be some hippies in their back yard running oil through a sock, and it would be difficult to handle and do. I told our fleet manager, let's just try it. It's interesting enough, and if it works, it could save us money. It is great environmentally, great for the national security and great for the economy. We converted one vehicle. To my surprise it is relatively easy and runs great.

>>Christopher Conver:
Convincing some of the employees took a bit of doing.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
Their reaction at first they thought we were crazy. They are just as passionate as we are about it now. Once you start using it, you get galvanized by it. You realize the benefit and you look for something that must be wrong about it and we haven't found anything. Everything about it is a positive.

>>Christopher Conver:
At this point, about 20\% of the fleet runs on French fry oil, but by 2010, the fleet of nearly two dozen will be operating on what makes lunch for many people and company officers say that's just good business.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We're saving money. In our case we're using our used vegetable oil. The oil we normally waste, we filter that and put it into the vehicle. We spend close to $100,000 a year on fuel, diesel fuel. Now we're using our used vegetable oil. It is definitely a money saver for us.

>>Christopher Conver:
Jason says he hopes more people and companies spend the $700 to $2,000 it takes to convert a vehicle to run on vegetable oil. It is 100\% renewable fuel that even seems to be good for the vehicles.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
You have the same power, same mileage. A lot of people out there making the case that it is actually better for your engine because diesel are fuel corrosive by nature, whereas vegetable oil acts as a natural lubricant. It extends the life of your vehicle. In the later years, they believe the vehicles will get better mileage on the vegetable oil.

>>Christopher Conver:
Walking by one of the trucks may make you hungry.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We have people saying they smell the French fries as we drive by. Burning vegetable oil that was used to cook French fries, you do get a smell of French fries when you are near the vehicle.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Most Arizonans want local police enforcing federal immigration laws. The latest on the clean elections law. Those against the financing of -- the "Journalists' Round table."

>>Ted Simons:
That's it for now. Thanks for joining us on "Horizon." have a great evening.

Nixon and Elvis


  • Egil “Bud” Krogh was the man President Richard Nixon placed in charge of the Special Investigations Unit, or “plumbers.” During a recent visit to ASU, he sat down with us to tell the amazing story of Elvis Presley’s visit with Nixon at the White House, asking for a badge to be a special narcotics agent.
Guests:
  • Karen Nicodemus - President, Arizona Board of Education
  • Cathie Raymond - Director, Career and Technical Education, Marana Unified School District
  • Egil Krogh - Nixon aide and leader investigator of "plumbers" unit of Watergate fame


View Transcript
>>Ted Simons:
Tonight on "Horizon," more math and science could be added to get a high school diploma. We'll tell you more about that. President Nixon's head "plumber" Egil "bud" Krogh, tells the amazing story of when Elvis Presley came calling at the white house. And we'll tell you about a truck powered by oil used to cook French fries. All that's next on "Horizon."

>>Announcer:
"Horizon" is made possible by contributions from the friends of eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.

>>Ted Simons:
Hello and welcome to "Horizon." I'm Ted Simons. In the news today, a ruling in favor of individual first amendment rights from an Arizona appellate court. A Scottsdale based company "the suggestion box, incorporated," won a case in the Arizona court of appeals regarding anonymous speech on the internet. The case involved an anonymous email sent to a C.E.O. of a company in Seattle, chiding him for an email he sent to his mistress. Mobilisa, a wireless and mobile provider, subpoenaed the suggestion box to get the identity of the email sender. The suggestion box provides anonymous email service through its theanonymousemail.com web site. The suggestion box refused to provide the records, and the court ruled in its favor today. However, the judge said that an anonymous emailer's identity might be obtained through the courts if the interests of those suing to get the ID outweigh the speaker's interest in remaining anonymous. The case was sent the case back to a lower court for a ruling on that. Arizona high school students will have to take more math and science classes to graduate if new rules are adopted by the state board of education. As David Majure reports, they may also have a choice between two different kinds of diplomas.

>>Speaker:
My reason for being here is not so much for or against right now, but I would like to get clarification on some issues, if that would be possible.

>>David Majure:
November 13th, a public hearing sponsored by the state board of education, gave people an opportunity to comment on proposed changes to Arizona's high school graduation requirements. About a dozen people showed up, mostly educators involved in career and technical education or C.T.E., you may remember it as vocational education.

>>Brian Forstall:
Career and technical education becomes a red-headed stepchild, and everybody is going to be on track to go to college.

>>David Majure:
There to comment on the series of rules that if approved will be phased in starting with the freshman class of 2008. Fully implemented and in effect for the graduating class of 2013. In order to earn a diploma, the students would need 22 credits, up by 20. Half credit in economics, but the number of electives needed to graduate shrinks by one and a half credits.

>>Gregory Donovan:
I would like the state board to present to the public the research that shows increasing credits does anything for success in college.

>>David Majure:
Another rule would create a personal curriculum, an alternate math requirement for students having a tough time passing algebra two. A rule that establishes a duel diploma system, a regular and a regents diploma that would be aligned with credit requirements. The regents diploma requires more advanced math course work, one fine arts credit instead of a course between fine arts or a C.T.E. course, it requires two credits in a foreign language.

>>Brian Forstall:
Regarding the duel-diploma system, I think we need to raise the bar for all students and not divide our youth into a two class system.

>>David Majure:
The state board of education is expected to make a final decision on the proposed rules at its meeting December 10th in Phoenix.

>>Ted Simons:
Joining me to talk about the proposed rule changes are Karen Nicodemus, president of the Arizona Board of Education, and Cathie Raymond, director of career and technical education for the Marana unified school district. Thank you both for joining us. What are we trying to accomplish with this?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
We are trying to accomplish a number of things. Number one, we're trying to certainly ensure that the students that are graduating from high school prepared for the 21st century and what they're going to really come out and compete in terms of the workplace. When we look at what are some of the skills required, there is a national effort, and many states looking at the graduation requirements and make sure that students are prepared for both work and college, which in the 21st century very similar in terms of the expectations. We're trying to really assume, and from the literature understand a large majority of students go to higher education, a lot of jobs require higher education. Having our systems work together so that our students can see a greater success as they move through the pipeline.

>>Ted Simons:
And the districts, how do the districts feel about this? Is this added pressure, one more thing to pile on top of everything else?

>>Cathie Raymond:
It is. Also the concern of where we will find math teachers, where we will put them, how it will affect the elective classes, in particular career and technical education.

>>Ted Simons:
And yet we get study after study showing that math and science, especially education in Arizona needs to be improved, in this growing, global economy. This looks like one method.

>>Cathie Raymond:
It does. Also we can look at career and technical education as applying the math and the science and showing students how it is relevant and how it will be relevant in their careers and in the 21st century.

>>Ted Simons:
Give us an example of how that might work.

>>Cathie Raymond:
Well, for instance, with the engineering programs, definitely will be a lot of math in there. Students will understand how they have to take that math and apply it to a career focus. When we look in programs such as medical laboratory assisting, definitely a lot of science involved in those programs. The amount of math that is involved in automotives now is quite intensive.

>>Ted Simons:
Karen, are we saying, is this a de facto admission that we are not teaching enough math and science, or the kind of thing it has to be taught differently? Why isn't what we're doing right now enough?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
First of all we need to acknowledge in 60\% of the districts throughout the state of Arizona, requiring more than the minimum state requirements. One of the things the state board has considered when you have a comparison on a state by state basis, the comparison made on the state's requirements. In many ways districts are in front of the state. I think the state needs to look at what best prepares those students. Five years ago I may have had a different answer, also coming from the community college -- I would say knowledge as much about lack of alignment between the systems, lack of communicating to students while they're in high school what the expectations are, giving them multiple pathways. I agree with Cathie's perspective, part of what we need to do is increase the graduation requirements without increasing graduation rates will do nothing for us. The state board recognizes a number of system issues to be addressed, and we recognized there has to be multiple pathways and ways to make the higher expectations relevant for students to help them be successful.

>>Ted Simons:
Added classes, lab space, teachers, money, money, money, how does that work out? How does that balance?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
Again, I think from the state board, and I would say the state board has had a number of study sessions. What is the right thing to do for students to enhance their success in the 21st century? We started and talked about that. I think the question if you define this is the right thing to do, then what can you reasonably hope to do or expect to do? You're right. It will require more resources. There is a part of me that firmly believes this is the right thing for students. Our districts need support. Teachers need support. 21st century learning environment with high expectations with high support. If we're going to have the kind of economic vitality that I believe the state of Arizona aspires to, high demand, high wage jobs, not just about a job, having a job that gives a person a livable wage that allows for opportunities throughout their lifetime, we have to look at do we have an educated work force to support that? I would say we need more of our students, one, graduating from high school, and, two, being prepared for work and college.

>>Ted Simons:
I know that the C.T.E. folks were concerned about the duel-diploma idea. Talk about that.

>>Cathie Raymond:
With the regents diploma, the requirement includes a fine art, and the state diploma, it is C.T.E. or fine arts. We feel that that kind of lowers the status somewhat, because regents is kind of a name that everyone -- regents, you know, an important name. On the other hand, we also believe that it could be cheating those students that are on that regent's track from actually participating in rigorous, relevant contextual learning, hands-on learning that may be important for them to gain a career that they will be happy with.

>>Ted Simons:
How has C.T.E. changed from what we used to remember as vocational education?

>>Cathie Raymond:
Well, now I think the emphasis in a lot of -- in most of the C.T.E. programs is the hands-on, relevancy, and also I don't know the C.T.E. program that doesn't encourage students for life long learning. And we talk about post secondary, not being just university and community college, but also technical schools, apprenticeships. A whole variety of learning opportunities out there. We try to be prepare students for that seamless transition from the high school into a career, further training where they will be successful.

>>Ted Simons:
Is there a danger where you get so caught up in what you're caught up in, that you don't -- doesn't have enough math or science involved in that core, that you would get lost, and I wind up in a program like this added requirements would help you?

>>Cathie Raymond:
I'm not sure about that. It could if we could have some of those -- the cross credits, if some courses could count as a mat credit or a science credit. I think if raising the -- raising the bar is important, I have no problems with that, but I think we need to look at the whole picture.

>>Ted Simons:
Elective courses, part of the whole picture. These kinds of other outside activities, things that aren't necessarily on a track, are they going to get lost in the shuffle here with added science, added math?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
I think when the -- the state board has really, number one, colleagues on the state board have been deliberate and very thoughtful in their discussion, and those issues have been -- have been part of our deliberations, and I would say as we look at the standard diploma, we have tried to build in flexibility, multiple pathways and accomplish what some of what Kathy has described, a student might be in a career technical program, math to a level as defined in the graduation requirement -- we have looked at ways that a student can actually not meet the credit hour requirement, but they may be able to take a course that would meet both the graduation requirement and in some ways really allow additional flexibility around the electives. So, absolutely, I think we're trying to build a pathway that increases rigor, provides for multiple pathways, recognizes relevance is critical, many students will find that relevance through their electives. That is all important to us. I think that we have tried to address some of that as best we can within the confines of the language that we have to deal with.

>>Ted Simons:
What would your recommendation be to the board?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
My recommendation to the board, on December 10th, another public hearing tomorrow about the rules, and certainly the state board will be interested in the testimony that we receive, you know, I believe that the standard diploma is appropriate. I think it tries to bring into play all of those things that I just described. I think the technical education folks and other folks have raised legitimate issues in relation to the regents diploma. The state board needs to step back and decide if we're ready to move forward or we need more time to study. I favor some way to articulate to the students what are the expectations to the universities. The universities need to be at the table and the community colleges talking about how we provide multiple pathways to have more students move through.

>>Ted Simons:
We will stop it right there. Thank you for joining us.

>>Karen Nicodemus:
Thank you.

>>Cathie Raymond:
Thank you.

>>Ted Simons:
The national archives yesterday released correspondence from the Nixon presidency. One letter was from Nixon aide Egil Krogh. Krogh was thanking a friend for helping secure a bureau of narcotics and dangerous drugs badge for Elvis Presley. "The King" showed up at the white house in 1970, requesting the badge because he had a collection of badges and because he wanted to be something of a roving narcotics agent to help fight the war on drugs. Of course, Presley was to die later of a heart attack brought on by years of prescription drug abuse. Recently Krogh, who headed up the infamous special investigation unit or "plumbers" of Watergate fame was at ASU. Larry Lemmons, spoke with the man who was in the office when the president met "the king."

>>Larry Lemmons:
I have to ask you, first of all, about the very iconic moment in American history, that meeting between Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon. You had set that up.

>>Egil Krough:
I set the meeting up. That remains, I think, the most incredible experience in my government career. Elvis Presley showed up totally unexpectedly at the northwest gate and handed a letter to the guard. In the letter he told the president he wanted to help the country out. I got that letter because he also mentioned he wanted to help on the drug program. I read it. I said we ought to talk to this guy to see whether or not he might be able to help us out. I talked to Dwight Chapin, who is the president's scheduling secretary and I said I will meet with Elvis and Sonny West and Jerry Shilling --

>>Larry Lemmons:
The two body guards.

>>Egil Krough:
The body guards that come with him to see if it was for real. I called the Washington hotel. Jerry answered the phone and he said why don't you come over and let's talk about this. Elvis Presley walked in wearing a purple velvet cape, white silk shirt, purple pants, gold belt buckle that I think reflected setting some kind of attendance record in Las Vegas. We talked about his service to the country. He believed in the country, and why he had gone in the army and not tried to avoid service, and I was blown away by it. First I should say I was a huge fan of Elvis Presley. This was a great opportunity. I wrote a memo to the president. How we should have Elvis come in. We got approval from Bob Haldeman. The meeting was about to start and I got a call from Secret Service. They said we have a little problem. I said what's that? He's brought a gun.

>>Larry: Elvis with a gun.

>>Egil Krough:
Elvis with a gun, Larry. The secret service guys said a nice gun, a colt 45, World War II pistol, but it's got bullets in the case. I had to go over and explain that we can't take guns into the oval office, standard policy around here. He took that in good grace. Then we walked into the oval office, Elvis and myself, the president was there. Elvis has entertained millions of people. This will be easy for him. Not so. He walked in and he stopped. And I had to usher him across the carpet over to the president's desk, and the president came out from behind the desk and they shook hands and Elvis was clutching badges and pictures. He put them on the desk. The president took him over to the flags. The photograph of Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon in front of those flags is the most requested photograph of any of the national archives. They have sold over 39,000 copies of that at ten dollars a pop.

>>Larry Lemmons:
I think, too, part of that, there is that certain irony that he ended up dying from a drug overdose, prescription drugs, what was he after at that time?

>>Egil Krough:
Well, he had, I think, a hidden agenda. He had gone to the bureau of narcotics and dangerous drugs and asked for a badge. They turned him down, as properly they should have. He told John Finn later that I am going to go to the white house and get a badge. He said that's the only place you are going to get one. So he came over, halfway through our conversation, we talked about the Beatles and playing Las Vegas and all of the things that I thought were sort of strange --

>>Larry Lemmons:
He didn't appreciate the Beatles at that time because of the antiwar sentiment.

>>Egil Krough:
He felt they came over and said things against America and made a lot of money. Elvis was a deep patriot. He felt strongly. About halfway through he said Mr. President, can you get me a badge from the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs? The President looked at me and said bud; can we get him a badge? I said well, sir, if you want to get him a badge we can do that. He said make sure he gets one. Elvis steps forward and grabs the president; he hugs him. One of the more inviting pictures from that meeting was the president being hugged by Elvis Presley. You know -- president hugging wasn't the norm in that white house. Elvis asked if his body guards could come in. The Memphis mafia, and the president looked at me and said, bud, do we have time for that? I said yes, sir. We welcomed them in. I told the secret service to have them come in. The president, to try to wrap up the meeting, went behind his desk, opened the bottom left hand drawer where the presents were, or gifts that the president would give to visitors of the oval office, and they were arranged in order of value, the cheapest to the most expensive. And he is leaning over, and I had never seen this before. Elvis walked behind the desk with the president, and one of my abiding memories is well, are there -- the two of them going through the bottom left hand drawer. Remember, Mr. President, they have wives and sweethearts, and out come the 16 karat gold bracelets, reaching deep into the drawer to bring this out. They were there for 35 minutes and finished all of their Christmas shopping in about four minutes going through the drawer towards the end of the meeting.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Isn't it extraordinary how in that time, people look back, they remember Watergate and remember a lot of things like that, but that image has stuck in the people's minds more so I think than a lot --

>>Egil Krough:
I think that's true. The juxtaposition, the bringing together of two people where it just doesn't quite compute.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Sure.

>>Egil Krough:
Why are they there? But, there were so many similarities, both came from poor backgrounds, had risen through hard work and discipline and effort to the tops of their professions, and something happened during that meeting that I found out about later after Mr. Nixon had resigned. He suffered a bout of phlebitis, he was in the hospital. Elvis called him up. He said I'm praying for you, I hope you're feeling better. Three years later Elvis is in the hospital, Mr. Nixon called him up and said the same thing. Something happened. When you go to the Nixon Library, you will see the gun Elvis brought to him. When you go to Graceland, you will see the badge. It was a short period of time, 35 minutes, but something; some cord was struck in both of them that showed that they had some recognition of each other's lives and what they were.

>>Ted Simons:
Although Krogh was Nixon's original "plumber," he was not involved in the Watergate break-in, but instead authorized the break-in to Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office in the pentagon papers scandal. Imagine powering a vehicle with the oil that is used to make French fries. Producer Christopher Conover says you can smell the vehicle coming down the road.

>>Christopher Conver:
Looking for a quick bite to eat and you dash into a Carl's junior, maybe grab fries. But that snack is doing more than filling you up. Actually it is filling up the cars and trucks that keep Carl's junior running in Arizona. That's because the fleet runs on vegetable oil.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We actually set up a mini vegetable gas station -- all of our employees that are out in the field using our vehicles, are regional managers, maintenance technicians, up there for meetings once a meet. They will fill the tank. If they need a refill, they come back to the office, we have it set up and they can refill up there. In an emergency, we instruct them to go to the grocery store and buy vegetable oil and power it into the tank. People watch in amazement that you are pouring vegetable oil into your vehicle.

>>Christopher Conver:
The idea came after reading a newspaper article.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
I thought at first this had to be some hippies in their back yard running oil through a sock, and it would be difficult to handle and do. I told our fleet manager, let's just try it. It's interesting enough, and if it works, it could save us money. It is great environmentally, great for the national security and great for the economy. We converted one vehicle. To my surprise it is relatively easy and runs great.

>>Christopher Conver:
Convincing some of the employees took a bit of doing.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
Their reaction at first they thought we were crazy. They are just as passionate as we are about it now. Once you start using it, you get galvanized by it. You realize the benefit and you look for something that must be wrong about it and we haven't found anything. Everything about it is a positive.

>>Christopher Conver:
At this point, about 20\% of the fleet runs on French fry oil, but by 2010, the fleet of nearly two dozen will be operating on what makes lunch for many people and company officers say that's just good business.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We're saving money. In our case we're using our used vegetable oil. The oil we normally waste, we filter that and put it into the vehicle. We spend close to $100,000 a year on fuel, diesel fuel. Now we're using our used vegetable oil. It is definitely a money saver for us.

>>Christopher Conver:
Jason says he hopes more people and companies spend the $700 to $2,000 it takes to convert a vehicle to run on vegetable oil. It is 100\% renewable fuel that even seems to be good for the vehicles.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
You have the same power, same mileage. A lot of people out there making the case that it is actually better for your engine because diesel are fuel corrosive by nature, whereas vegetable oil acts as a natural lubricant. It extends the life of your vehicle. In the later years, they believe the vehicles will get better mileage on the vegetable oil.

>>Christopher Conver:
Walking by one of the trucks may make you hungry.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We have people saying they smell the French fries as we drive by. Burning vegetable oil that was used to cook French fries, you do get a smell of French fries when you are near the vehicle.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Most Arizonans want local police enforcing federal immigration laws. The latest on the clean elections law. Those against the financing of -- the "Journalists' Round table."

>>Ted Simons:
That's it for now. Thanks for joining us on "Horizon." have a great evening.

Proposed High School Graduation Requirements


  • The Arizona State Board of Education is considering a plan to increase the number of math and science credits required to earn a high school diploma. It’s also considering a new rule that establishes a dual diploma system. The Board President and a Marana Unified School District official talk about the proposals. Proposed Board of Education rules
Guests:
  • Karen Nicodemus - President, Arizona Board of Education
  • Cathie Raymond - Director, Career and Technical Education, Marana Unified School District
  • Egil Krogh - Nixon aide and leader investigator of "plumbers" unit of Watergate fame
Category: Education

View Transcript
>>Ted Simons:
Tonight on "Horizon," more math and science could be added to get a high school diploma. We'll tell you more about that. President Nixon's head "plumber" Egil "bud" Krogh, tells the amazing story of when Elvis Presley came calling at the white house. And we'll tell you about a truck powered by oil used to cook French fries. All that's next on "Horizon."

>>Announcer:
"Horizon" is made possible by contributions from the friends of eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.

>>Ted Simons:
Hello and welcome to "Horizon." I'm Ted Simons. In the news today, a ruling in favor of individual first amendment rights from an Arizona appellate court. A Scottsdale based company "the suggestion box, incorporated," won a case in the Arizona court of appeals regarding anonymous speech on the internet. The case involved an anonymous email sent to a C.E.O. of a company in Seattle, chiding him for an email he sent to his mistress. Mobilisa, a wireless and mobile provider, subpoenaed the suggestion box to get the identity of the email sender. The suggestion box provides anonymous email service through its theanonymousemail.com web site. The suggestion box refused to provide the records, and the court ruled in its favor today. However, the judge said that an anonymous emailer's identity might be obtained through the courts if the interests of those suing to get the ID outweigh the speaker's interest in remaining anonymous. The case was sent the case back to a lower court for a ruling on that. Arizona high school students will have to take more math and science classes to graduate if new rules are adopted by the state board of education. As David Majure reports, they may also have a choice between two different kinds of diplomas.

>>Speaker:
My reason for being here is not so much for or against right now, but I would like to get clarification on some issues, if that would be possible.

>>David Majure:
November 13th, a public hearing sponsored by the state board of education, gave people an opportunity to comment on proposed changes to Arizona's high school graduation requirements. About a dozen people showed up, mostly educators involved in career and technical education or C.T.E., you may remember it as vocational education.

>>Brian Forstall:
Career and technical education becomes a red-headed stepchild, and everybody is going to be on track to go to college.

>>David Majure:
There to comment on the series of rules that if approved will be phased in starting with the freshman class of 2008. Fully implemented and in effect for the graduating class of 2013. In order to earn a diploma, the students would need 22 credits, up by 20. Half credit in economics, but the number of electives needed to graduate shrinks by one and a half credits.

>>Gregory Donovan:
I would like the state board to present to the public the research that shows increasing credits does anything for success in college.

>>David Majure:
Another rule would create a personal curriculum, an alternate math requirement for students having a tough time passing algebra two. A rule that establishes a duel diploma system, a regular and a regents diploma that would be aligned with credit requirements. The regents diploma requires more advanced math course work, one fine arts credit instead of a course between fine arts or a C.T.E. course, it requires two credits in a foreign language.

>>Brian Forstall:
Regarding the duel-diploma system, I think we need to raise the bar for all students and not divide our youth into a two class system.

>>David Majure:
The state board of education is expected to make a final decision on the proposed rules at its meeting December 10th in Phoenix.

>>Ted Simons:
Joining me to talk about the proposed rule changes are Karen Nicodemus, president of the Arizona Board of Education, and Cathie Raymond, director of career and technical education for the Marana unified school district. Thank you both for joining us. What are we trying to accomplish with this?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
We are trying to accomplish a number of things. Number one, we're trying to certainly ensure that the students that are graduating from high school prepared for the 21st century and what they're going to really come out and compete in terms of the workplace. When we look at what are some of the skills required, there is a national effort, and many states looking at the graduation requirements and make sure that students are prepared for both work and college, which in the 21st century very similar in terms of the expectations. We're trying to really assume, and from the literature understand a large majority of students go to higher education, a lot of jobs require higher education. Having our systems work together so that our students can see a greater success as they move through the pipeline.

>>Ted Simons:
And the districts, how do the districts feel about this? Is this added pressure, one more thing to pile on top of everything else?

>>Cathie Raymond:
It is. Also the concern of where we will find math teachers, where we will put them, how it will affect the elective classes, in particular career and technical education.

>>Ted Simons:
And yet we get study after study showing that math and science, especially education in Arizona needs to be improved, in this growing, global economy. This looks like one method.

>>Cathie Raymond:
It does. Also we can look at career and technical education as applying the math and the science and showing students how it is relevant and how it will be relevant in their careers and in the 21st century.

>>Ted Simons:
Give us an example of how that might work.

>>Cathie Raymond:
Well, for instance, with the engineering programs, definitely will be a lot of math in there. Students will understand how they have to take that math and apply it to a career focus. When we look in programs such as medical laboratory assisting, definitely a lot of science involved in those programs. The amount of math that is involved in automotives now is quite intensive.

>>Ted Simons:
Karen, are we saying, is this a de facto admission that we are not teaching enough math and science, or the kind of thing it has to be taught differently? Why isn't what we're doing right now enough?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
First of all we need to acknowledge in 60\% of the districts throughout the state of Arizona, requiring more than the minimum state requirements. One of the things the state board has considered when you have a comparison on a state by state basis, the comparison made on the state's requirements. In many ways districts are in front of the state. I think the state needs to look at what best prepares those students. Five years ago I may have had a different answer, also coming from the community college -- I would say knowledge as much about lack of alignment between the systems, lack of communicating to students while they're in high school what the expectations are, giving them multiple pathways. I agree with Cathie's perspective, part of what we need to do is increase the graduation requirements without increasing graduation rates will do nothing for us. The state board recognizes a number of system issues to be addressed, and we recognized there has to be multiple pathways and ways to make the higher expectations relevant for students to help them be successful.

>>Ted Simons:
Added classes, lab space, teachers, money, money, money, how does that work out? How does that balance?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
Again, I think from the state board, and I would say the state board has had a number of study sessions. What is the right thing to do for students to enhance their success in the 21st century? We started and talked about that. I think the question if you define this is the right thing to do, then what can you reasonably hope to do or expect to do? You're right. It will require more resources. There is a part of me that firmly believes this is the right thing for students. Our districts need support. Teachers need support. 21st century learning environment with high expectations with high support. If we're going to have the kind of economic vitality that I believe the state of Arizona aspires to, high demand, high wage jobs, not just about a job, having a job that gives a person a livable wage that allows for opportunities throughout their lifetime, we have to look at do we have an educated work force to support that? I would say we need more of our students, one, graduating from high school, and, two, being prepared for work and college.

>>Ted Simons:
I know that the C.T.E. folks were concerned about the duel-diploma idea. Talk about that.

>>Cathie Raymond:
With the regents diploma, the requirement includes a fine art, and the state diploma, it is C.T.E. or fine arts. We feel that that kind of lowers the status somewhat, because regents is kind of a name that everyone -- regents, you know, an important name. On the other hand, we also believe that it could be cheating those students that are on that regent's track from actually participating in rigorous, relevant contextual learning, hands-on learning that may be important for them to gain a career that they will be happy with.

>>Ted Simons:
How has C.T.E. changed from what we used to remember as vocational education?

>>Cathie Raymond:
Well, now I think the emphasis in a lot of -- in most of the C.T.E. programs is the hands-on, relevancy, and also I don't know the C.T.E. program that doesn't encourage students for life long learning. And we talk about post secondary, not being just university and community college, but also technical schools, apprenticeships. A whole variety of learning opportunities out there. We try to be prepare students for that seamless transition from the high school into a career, further training where they will be successful.

>>Ted Simons:
Is there a danger where you get so caught up in what you're caught up in, that you don't -- doesn't have enough math or science involved in that core, that you would get lost, and I wind up in a program like this added requirements would help you?

>>Cathie Raymond:
I'm not sure about that. It could if we could have some of those -- the cross credits, if some courses could count as a mat credit or a science credit. I think if raising the -- raising the bar is important, I have no problems with that, but I think we need to look at the whole picture.

>>Ted Simons:
Elective courses, part of the whole picture. These kinds of other outside activities, things that aren't necessarily on a track, are they going to get lost in the shuffle here with added science, added math?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
I think when the -- the state board has really, number one, colleagues on the state board have been deliberate and very thoughtful in their discussion, and those issues have been -- have been part of our deliberations, and I would say as we look at the standard diploma, we have tried to build in flexibility, multiple pathways and accomplish what some of what Kathy has described, a student might be in a career technical program, math to a level as defined in the graduation requirement -- we have looked at ways that a student can actually not meet the credit hour requirement, but they may be able to take a course that would meet both the graduation requirement and in some ways really allow additional flexibility around the electives. So, absolutely, I think we're trying to build a pathway that increases rigor, provides for multiple pathways, recognizes relevance is critical, many students will find that relevance through their electives. That is all important to us. I think that we have tried to address some of that as best we can within the confines of the language that we have to deal with.

>>Ted Simons:
What would your recommendation be to the board?

>>Karen Nicodemus:
My recommendation to the board, on December 10th, another public hearing tomorrow about the rules, and certainly the state board will be interested in the testimony that we receive, you know, I believe that the standard diploma is appropriate. I think it tries to bring into play all of those things that I just described. I think the technical education folks and other folks have raised legitimate issues in relation to the regents diploma. The state board needs to step back and decide if we're ready to move forward or we need more time to study. I favor some way to articulate to the students what are the expectations to the universities. The universities need to be at the table and the community colleges talking about how we provide multiple pathways to have more students move through.

>>Ted Simons:
We will stop it right there. Thank you for joining us.

>>Karen Nicodemus:
Thank you.

>>Cathie Raymond:
Thank you.

>>Ted Simons:
The national archives yesterday released correspondence from the Nixon presidency. One letter was from Nixon aide Egil Krogh. Krogh was thanking a friend for helping secure a bureau of narcotics and dangerous drugs badge for Elvis Presley. "The King" showed up at the white house in 1970, requesting the badge because he had a collection of badges and because he wanted to be something of a roving narcotics agent to help fight the war on drugs. Of course, Presley was to die later of a heart attack brought on by years of prescription drug abuse. Recently Krogh, who headed up the infamous special investigation unit or "plumbers" of Watergate fame was at ASU. Larry Lemmons, spoke with the man who was in the office when the president met "the king."

>>Larry Lemmons:
I have to ask you, first of all, about the very iconic moment in American history, that meeting between Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon. You had set that up.

>>Egil Krough:
I set the meeting up. That remains, I think, the most incredible experience in my government career. Elvis Presley showed up totally unexpectedly at the northwest gate and handed a letter to the guard. In the letter he told the president he wanted to help the country out. I got that letter because he also mentioned he wanted to help on the drug program. I read it. I said we ought to talk to this guy to see whether or not he might be able to help us out. I talked to Dwight Chapin, who is the president's scheduling secretary and I said I will meet with Elvis and Sonny West and Jerry Shilling --

>>Larry Lemmons:
The two body guards.

>>Egil Krough:
The body guards that come with him to see if it was for real. I called the Washington hotel. Jerry answered the phone and he said why don't you come over and let's talk about this. Elvis Presley walked in wearing a purple velvet cape, white silk shirt, purple pants, gold belt buckle that I think reflected setting some kind of attendance record in Las Vegas. We talked about his service to the country. He believed in the country, and why he had gone in the army and not tried to avoid service, and I was blown away by it. First I should say I was a huge fan of Elvis Presley. This was a great opportunity. I wrote a memo to the president. How we should have Elvis come in. We got approval from Bob Haldeman. The meeting was about to start and I got a call from Secret Service. They said we have a little problem. I said what's that? He's brought a gun.

>>Larry: Elvis with a gun.

>>Egil Krough:
Elvis with a gun, Larry. The secret service guys said a nice gun, a colt 45, World War II pistol, but it's got bullets in the case. I had to go over and explain that we can't take guns into the oval office, standard policy around here. He took that in good grace. Then we walked into the oval office, Elvis and myself, the president was there. Elvis has entertained millions of people. This will be easy for him. Not so. He walked in and he stopped. And I had to usher him across the carpet over to the president's desk, and the president came out from behind the desk and they shook hands and Elvis was clutching badges and pictures. He put them on the desk. The president took him over to the flags. The photograph of Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon in front of those flags is the most requested photograph of any of the national archives. They have sold over 39,000 copies of that at ten dollars a pop.

>>Larry Lemmons:
I think, too, part of that, there is that certain irony that he ended up dying from a drug overdose, prescription drugs, what was he after at that time?

>>Egil Krough:
Well, he had, I think, a hidden agenda. He had gone to the bureau of narcotics and dangerous drugs and asked for a badge. They turned him down, as properly they should have. He told John Finn later that I am going to go to the white house and get a badge. He said that's the only place you are going to get one. So he came over, halfway through our conversation, we talked about the Beatles and playing Las Vegas and all of the things that I thought were sort of strange --

>>Larry Lemmons:
He didn't appreciate the Beatles at that time because of the antiwar sentiment.

>>Egil Krough:
He felt they came over and said things against America and made a lot of money. Elvis was a deep patriot. He felt strongly. About halfway through he said Mr. President, can you get me a badge from the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs? The President looked at me and said bud; can we get him a badge? I said well, sir, if you want to get him a badge we can do that. He said make sure he gets one. Elvis steps forward and grabs the president; he hugs him. One of the more inviting pictures from that meeting was the president being hugged by Elvis Presley. You know -- president hugging wasn't the norm in that white house. Elvis asked if his body guards could come in. The Memphis mafia, and the president looked at me and said, bud, do we have time for that? I said yes, sir. We welcomed them in. I told the secret service to have them come in. The president, to try to wrap up the meeting, went behind his desk, opened the bottom left hand drawer where the presents were, or gifts that the president would give to visitors of the oval office, and they were arranged in order of value, the cheapest to the most expensive. And he is leaning over, and I had never seen this before. Elvis walked behind the desk with the president, and one of my abiding memories is well, are there -- the two of them going through the bottom left hand drawer. Remember, Mr. President, they have wives and sweethearts, and out come the 16 karat gold bracelets, reaching deep into the drawer to bring this out. They were there for 35 minutes and finished all of their Christmas shopping in about four minutes going through the drawer towards the end of the meeting.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Isn't it extraordinary how in that time, people look back, they remember Watergate and remember a lot of things like that, but that image has stuck in the people's minds more so I think than a lot --

>>Egil Krough:
I think that's true. The juxtaposition, the bringing together of two people where it just doesn't quite compute.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Sure.

>>Egil Krough:
Why are they there? But, there were so many similarities, both came from poor backgrounds, had risen through hard work and discipline and effort to the tops of their professions, and something happened during that meeting that I found out about later after Mr. Nixon had resigned. He suffered a bout of phlebitis, he was in the hospital. Elvis called him up. He said I'm praying for you, I hope you're feeling better. Three years later Elvis is in the hospital, Mr. Nixon called him up and said the same thing. Something happened. When you go to the Nixon Library, you will see the gun Elvis brought to him. When you go to Graceland, you will see the badge. It was a short period of time, 35 minutes, but something; some cord was struck in both of them that showed that they had some recognition of each other's lives and what they were.

>>Ted Simons:
Although Krogh was Nixon's original "plumber," he was not involved in the Watergate break-in, but instead authorized the break-in to Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office in the pentagon papers scandal. Imagine powering a vehicle with the oil that is used to make French fries. Producer Christopher Conover says you can smell the vehicle coming down the road.

>>Christopher Conver:
Looking for a quick bite to eat and you dash into a Carl's junior, maybe grab fries. But that snack is doing more than filling you up. Actually it is filling up the cars and trucks that keep Carl's junior running in Arizona. That's because the fleet runs on vegetable oil.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We actually set up a mini vegetable gas station -- all of our employees that are out in the field using our vehicles, are regional managers, maintenance technicians, up there for meetings once a meet. They will fill the tank. If they need a refill, they come back to the office, we have it set up and they can refill up there. In an emergency, we instruct them to go to the grocery store and buy vegetable oil and power it into the tank. People watch in amazement that you are pouring vegetable oil into your vehicle.

>>Christopher Conver:
The idea came after reading a newspaper article.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
I thought at first this had to be some hippies in their back yard running oil through a sock, and it would be difficult to handle and do. I told our fleet manager, let's just try it. It's interesting enough, and if it works, it could save us money. It is great environmentally, great for the national security and great for the economy. We converted one vehicle. To my surprise it is relatively easy and runs great.

>>Christopher Conver:
Convincing some of the employees took a bit of doing.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
Their reaction at first they thought we were crazy. They are just as passionate as we are about it now. Once you start using it, you get galvanized by it. You realize the benefit and you look for something that must be wrong about it and we haven't found anything. Everything about it is a positive.

>>Christopher Conver:
At this point, about 20\% of the fleet runs on French fry oil, but by 2010, the fleet of nearly two dozen will be operating on what makes lunch for many people and company officers say that's just good business.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We're saving money. In our case we're using our used vegetable oil. The oil we normally waste, we filter that and put it into the vehicle. We spend close to $100,000 a year on fuel, diesel fuel. Now we're using our used vegetable oil. It is definitely a money saver for us.

>>Christopher Conver:
Jason says he hopes more people and companies spend the $700 to $2,000 it takes to convert a vehicle to run on vegetable oil. It is 100\% renewable fuel that even seems to be good for the vehicles.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
You have the same power, same mileage. A lot of people out there making the case that it is actually better for your engine because diesel are fuel corrosive by nature, whereas vegetable oil acts as a natural lubricant. It extends the life of your vehicle. In the later years, they believe the vehicles will get better mileage on the vegetable oil.

>>Christopher Conver:
Walking by one of the trucks may make you hungry.

>>Jason Le Vecke:
We have people saying they smell the French fries as we drive by. Burning vegetable oil that was used to cook French fries, you do get a smell of French fries when you are near the vehicle.

>>Larry Lemmons:
Most Arizonans want local police enforcing federal immigration laws. The latest on the clean elections law. Those against the financing of -- the "Journalists' Round table."

>>Ted Simons:
That's it for now. Thanks for joining us on "Horizon." have a great evening.

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