March 7, 2013
Host: Ted Simons
Chandler GM Hiring
- General Motors announced it will hire 1,000 workers for an information technology center in Chandler. Chandler Mayor Jay Tibshraeny will talk about the latest boost to his city’s economy.
- Jay Tibshraeny - Mayor, Chandler
| Keywords: General Motors
Ted Simons: Good evening, welcome to "Arizona Horizon." I'm Ted Simons. General Motors announced yesterday it plans to open an I.T. innovation center in Chandler. Could mean 1,000 new jobs in the east valley. Here is Chandler mayor Jay Tibshraeny. Good to see you again. Thanks for joining us. What is an I.T. invasion center?
Jay Tibshraeny: I.T Invasion center, at least in this instance it's center where G.M. will do research and development into software to put in automobiles. It's for information technology services, software development.
Ted Simons: Basically G.M. car in the near future you leave the door open, the voice says you left the door open, that was probably developed or programmed in Arizona.
Jay Tibshraeny: we're one of four.
Ted Simons: where are the others?
Jay Tibshraeny: The others, this is a new concept. They are taking their information technology software development, it used to be outsourced, they are doing it internally now. So they have located four of these to help them develop the software. One of them obviously Chandler, Arizona, in Michigan, a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia, and Austin, Texas, are the others.
Ted Simons: Why Chandler?
Jay Tibshraeny: Besides being known as the southwestern innovation and technology hub, that's one reason, but that corridor is very, very strong. But this was a team effort. I think they looked at Arizona and with Arizona commerce authority and G-PEC, and Chandler partnering and working on this together because of maybe it entailed some of the other high profile companies that located in that corridor they said Chandler. Plus they are going to lease so they have a developer that can build them a building quickly. That building has not started construction yet. It's a 200,000 square foot building. They want it to be up and running a year from now, so they will work close with the city. We have good expertise in turning around projects, getting them up and running. I think there was a lot of factors in locating in Chandler.
Ted Simons: Where will the building be located?
Jay Tibshraeny: It will be at the 101 and 202 in Chandler. Chandler fashion mall in Chandler, this is just south of there.
Ted Simons: Okay. Near that hub, that hollowed out building?
Jay Tibshraeny: Maybe we'll get another high-tech company to locate there eventually. That's the game plan.
Ted Simons: What about incentives? Folks not excited about the city, of the state offering incentives to folks like G.M. How important were incentives in this deal?
Jay Tibshraeny: We're dealing with national competition for these and incentives were important. We're very prudent in Chandler and I know the state is also about when and how you offer them and look at all the factor involved with that. There was incentives on both of our ends to get this. I doubt that we offered more than whoever we were competing against. But I think those help secure these kinds of projects.
Ted Simons: As far as the city is concerned it was reported Arizona Republic had $1200 for the first 750 jobs, 900 for the next 250 with a cap at I believe at 1,000 jobs and/or 1.13 million.
Jay Tibshraeny: about 1.1 million. I think the state has some money in too based on other things. It's job-based performance and there's a cap on it. We looked at the numbers and it made sense.
Ted Simons: It made sense for them, obviously, as well. What about having ASU nearby? Even U of A near by in a sense as well. How much of a factor?
Jay Tibshraeny: They are going to be hiring a 1,000 people. A rot of -- lot of them will be information technology graduates. They say 30-35% of the people they hire will be new graduates. That means they are looking at your university system. Can you support that structure. Not only were they favorably impressed with Arizona state university and University of Arizona they are looking at educational opportunities within five or 600 miles of that location. That takes them into California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, so on. They are looking at that and they were fairly impressed with what they would have to draw on.
Ted Simons: airport nearby a factor as well?
Jay Tibshraeny: They didn't mention it but I'm sure it is. We have a great airport in Sky Harbor. That was good. Transportation obviously very important. That was good too.
Ted Simons: We're talking about 1,000 jobs?
Jay Tibshraeny: Correct.
Ted Simons: What skill level -- you referred to that earlier. Give us a better indication of skill level and corresponding salary ranges.
Jay Tibshraeny: He didn't give me the salaries. They call them highwage jobs. Information technology degrees from universities would be your skill level. Which is good news for people even starting to school now. Wondering what should I get my degree in. This is another area. We have engineers at Intel, technology at General Motors. There will be a lot of college graduates.
Ted Simons: Are these new jobs or transfer jobs?
Jay Tibshraeny: These are new jobs.
Ted Simons: these are people that basically will be hired out here as opposed to coming from other areas.
Jay Tibshraeny: True. What we're looking at from Chandler's perspective, new people coming in. Even if they are not hired from within the state they will be moving into Chandler hopefully or the east valley and homes and adding to our economic base.
Ted Simons: last question, we talked about the price road corridor, trying to make that, turning it into a technology hub. Is this in the pride road corridor?
Jay Tibshraeny: This is right smack dab in the middle. It's helping cement our reputation as a regional hub for technology and innovation. It was a good addition to our company, a fortune 500 company adding to some of the great companies already in that corridor.
Ted Simons: how long did it take for this deal to happen? Was this something that happened quickly or did they look into this site for quite awhile?
Jay Tibshraeny: We have been working on this since last summer.
Ted Simons: wow.
Jay Tibshraeny: Early last summer. These things take a lot of time an there's a lot of competition.
Ted Simons: we're going to see people up and running in a year?
Jay Tibshraeny: They want to be up and running a year from now.
Ted Simons: wow.
Jay Tibshraeny: occupying that building.
Ted Simons: Well congratulations. Sounds like things are happening.
Jay Tibshraeny: lots more to come.
Ted Simons: sounds good. Thanks for joining us.
Jay Tibshraeny: Thanks.
- There’s been a dramatic increase in western Arizona of a bug that can do tremendous damage to citrus trees. The Asian Citrus Psyllid carries greening disease, otherwise known as Huanglongbing. Once a tree is infected it will die. The disease could damage our state’s Citrus crop, one of the Five Cs that adds $37 million dollars a year to Arizona’s economy. John Caravett, a of the Arizona Department of Agriculture, will tell us more.
- John Caravett - Arizona Department of Agriculture
| Keywords: citrus
Ted Simons: A pest is threatening one of Arizona's five Cs, the Asian citrus Syll-id is showing up in alarming numbers in certain areas of western Arizona. Here to tell us more is John Caravetta of the Arizona Department of Agriculture. How alarming are these numbers?
John Caravett: Since Arizona's agricultural economy is about 10.2 billion in size, we have a $37 million citrus fruit production industry here, and this very small insect carries a big wallop.
Ted Simons: Talk about this insect. How small?
John Caravett: it's about the size of a ends of a ballpoint pen. It convey as disease that can kill mature citrus trees.
Ted Simons: Where did this insect come from?
John Caravett: The insect originates from Asia, Saudi Arabia, sub tropical areas of the globe. Most recently detected in the United States, particularly Florida and California. Now in Arizona.
Ted Simons: We're seeing traps in groves. The best way to fight this is to know where it is, you're starting to find them.
John Caravett: we are. We have about 9,000 traps around the state at any given time. The best way to find them is continue with that process. We found them in western Arizona most recently.
Ted Simons: western Arizona, Yuma? What other parts of western Arizona?
John Caravett: Yuma in about 2009. Now in Lake Havasu city in about a 20-mile area in Lake Havasu city currently.
Ted Simons: I understand that this has been in Arizona for a while. There was a quarantine in 2009?
John Caravett: There was. Our first detections were in San Luis, Arizona down in southwestern Yuma County. The quarantine was established in southwestern Yuma County. Then we now have a new quarantine area in the Lake Havasu city area.
Ted Simons: The one in 2009 did seem to work?
John Caravett: Very effective at controlling and containing the insect, allowing us to eradicate it.
Ted Simons: How does the insect damage citrus? What does it do and how do you know if you got it?
John Caravett: Well, the insect is very small to see. It feeds in a pumping motion, sucking out of a straw it will suck the juices out of the citrus tree. It also has the ability to reinject the tree with the citrus Greening disease should it be carrying it. That's always fatal to a tree.
Ted Simons: Citrus greening, -- means the leaves, the branches – the fruit. What is too green?
John Caravett: What will happens is the tree will turn bright yellow, and in Chinese it is huanglongbing, called yellow dragon disease. The tree will take on a very bright yellow coloration and the fruit will taste like you are drinking cough syrup.
Ted Simons: Oh my goodness, and once this happens the tree is gone?
John Caravett: It's very close to being gone.
Ted Simons: Wow. So we do have a quarantine in effect now for parts of Yuma and Havasu?
John Caravett: We do. Parts of Lake Havasu and parts of Yuma. It's not been found in central Arizona at this time.
Ted Simons: folks with citrus groves or plants and trees at their homes, no worries as yet.
John Caravett: No worries as yet. We have not found any of the insects carrying the disease so the home own has the chance to manage the insect as a nuisance, if you will.
Ted Simons: You're looking for the public to help in certain ways, correct?
John Caravett: we are. The public has been outstanding helping us eradicate this in Yuma and in Lake Havasu city. We're looking for the public's participation in buying local fruit, buying fruit that's either commercially processed that you get at the grocery store or buying your citrus trees or plants from local nurseries where they have gone through the proper cleaning procedures and safeguarding procedures that make it safe to plant those things.
Ted Simons: So buy only inspected, certified citrus plants when you are buying the plants as well
John Caravett: Correct.
Ted Simons: I notice don't ship personal citrus plants. Is that the recommendation, what is that all about?
John Caravett: Well, homeowners generally like to pull their own citrus out of their trees, maybe send it to a relative in another state, perhaps another state that grows citrus. We're asking the public not to do that because they could move the insect along with the fruit and the pretty leaves that come with it. It's a really nice table decoration as well.
Ted Simons: as far as the quarantine effect and fighting this particular pest, when do you know you've won or lost?
John Caravett: We know we have won when our trapping tells us that we have not found any more after we good through and we do our treatments and so forth. Then we know that we have a handle on the situation. That takes time.
Ted Simons: When you have had the Greening disease, you know, citrus Orchard looks like it's been infected and the greening diseases are showing up is it a cycle? Does it last for years? Can it be eradicated quickly? What do you do?
John Caravett: It's easy to eradicate once you know a tree is infected because the tree has to be removed. Then you try to keep the Syll-id's under control. It's like introducing flu to a group of kids in a classroom. One person can spread it fairly quickly.
Ted Simons: good luck fighting this thing. We want to keep it out of our backyards for sure.
John Caravett: Thank you.
Miranda Warning Anniversary
- The 50th anniversary of one of the most famous arrests in American history is happening in March. On March 13th, 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested for rape, kidnapping and robbery in Phoenix without being informed of any of his rights. That led to a United States Supreme Court ruling requiring all being arrested to be read their “Miranda Rights.” Arizona State University adjunct law professor Gary Stuart, who’s written a book about the case, will talk about the history of the Miranda Warning.
- Gary Stuart - Adjunct Law Professor, Arizona State University
| Keywords: miranda
Ted Simons: 50 years ago on March 13,1963 , Ernesto Miranda was arrested for rape, kidnapping and robbery in Phoenix. At the time of his arrest Miranda was not informed of his rights. The arrest led to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that led to what are now well known as Miranda rights. Joining us now is ASU adjunct law professor Gary Stuart who has written a book about the Miranda case and its implications. Good to see you again.
Gary Stuart: nice to see you, Ted.
Ted Simons: we wanted to get you because of the 50 anniversary next week. Who was Ernesto Miranda?
Gary Stuart: He was a young man that lived in Mesa not far from here. He committed three crimes in downtown Phoenix, two in downtown Phoenix, one not far from here. It was described as east of Phoenix. 20th street and Bethany home.
Ted Simons: a lot of arrests over a lot of years. Why did this one wind up going to the U.S. Supreme Court? No rights read to him. This one stuck whereas so many may not have. What happened?
Gary Stuart: Up to the year prior to this, in 1962 it was always the law that suspects had the right to remain silent, they had a right to a lawyer, they had a right to not be interrogated if they didn't want to be interrogated, but the problem was of course most people didn't know that. A lot of people didn't know that. Suspects didn't know that. So the Supreme Court was actively looking for a case, looking for a case in which there was no doubt about guilt, and a case in which rights clearly were not warned of, and that didn't fit this norm. They are looking for that case. This one they found.
Ted Simons: They found this case and Ernesto Miranda, did he cooperate with the case? Did he have any idea what was going on? What was his part in all this?
Gary Stuart: Well, Miranda was arrested by a Phoenix cop, named Carroll Cooley, was a good cop then. He's retired now but still around, still doing well. When Carroll arrested Miranda, he thought Miranda looked as he put it good for this crime. He fit the profile but he didn't have any evidence whatsoever to connect Miranda to the crime. But he arrested him on suspicion. In those days that was enough, but didn’t formally put him on arrest he said will you come down and talk to us, and he did. They had a very short lineup, lasted less than a minute. They had two of the victims in the police station, neither of these victims could pick out Miranda. He looked like he might have been the guy, but it was dark and they couldn't pick him out very well. But when detective Cooley went back in to talk to Miranda, he asked the wrong questions. He said, how did I do?
Ted Simons: Oh, boy.
Gary Stuart: the detective said, well, not so good. I don't think that's very good, Ernie. Maybe you just better tell me what happened. So Ernie did. He wrote it out in long hand and confessed. That confession became the only document in the trial. It was the only thing that convicted him. He was convicted not on forensic evidence or eyewitness testimony or anything else but was convicted because he didn't know he had any rights.
Ted Simons: So the case is -- who led the charge on this case and basically -- was it a surprise at the time that it went as far as it did? You said the Supreme Court was looking for something like this. Apparently not, huh?
Gary Stuart: The prior year they came down with Gideon versus Wainwright. Gideon versus Wainwright they held that anybody that wanted a lawyer an made that clear to the cops was entitled to a lawyer, entitled to invoke his right to remain silent, but you had to ask for it. So they were looking for a case in which the suspect didn't ask for it and didn't know enough to ask for it but nonetheless was clearly guilty of the crime with which he was charged. Miranda fit all those parameters, so they selected Miranda among many other possible cases. In part, I believe, because John P. frank was Miranda's lawyer. John P. frank was a nationally known constitutional lawyer. He was a law clerk for Justice Hugo black on the Supreme Court. This was the right case for him the right case fort court at the right time.
Ted Simons: when it came before the court, what were the challenges? What were the discussions here? The arguments for and against?
Gary Stuart: The arguments for it is that the realty of custodial interrogation in a fair number of places in America was the sole investigation. Crimes were investigated by interrogating and nothing else. In those environments custodial interrogation, often resulted in a quick, easy confession because suspects did not know that they had rights. So they are looking for a way to convey these rights, to expand the rights. They had the right mix of facts and law and circumstances in the Miranda case.
Ted Simons: was there much argument against?
Gary Stuart: There was strong argument against it. No one -- the real issue was not do you have these rights, the real issue was who is going to tell you that you have these rights. It couldn't be a lawyer because lawyers are not involved in the proceedings at this early investigative stage. Couldn't be a judge because judges are not involved until after charges are brought. So that leaves only police officers. There was enormous opposition to the fact that a police officer would now be responsible for warning people about this and warning them that if they did not want to be interrogated they could quit. If they didn't have a lawyer one would be appointed for them. Most importantly they had a right to remain silent. That became a police obligation after Miranda.
Ted Simons: With that, last question, what is the impact on law enforcement of the Miranda warning? We have seen dragnet, the TV shows where they read the warnings. I can see where that argument against probably did have a lot of weight to it. Talk about the impact afterwards.
Gary Stuart: It did certainly in the 50's and 60's. It lost a lot of steam in the 70's are, and by the 80's is this is the most widely accepted positive thing for police officers. If the police officer wants to get the confession that he is about to take in evidence the best way to do that is to give the suspect his Miranda rights. Many of them in large numbers waived those rights for all kinds of reasons but they waive those rights. Once that happens, if the warnings are properly given at the right time under the right circumstances, these confessions become Miranda compliant. That becomes a way to get that confession into evidence. Police officers are now by and large very much in favor of this.
Ted Simons: Isn't that something. Gary, it is always a pleasure. Thank you for joining us.
Gary Stuart: Thanks for having me.