Horizon, Host: Ted Simons

July 31, 2007


Host: Cary Pfeffer

Arizona Stories St. Mary's Basilica


  • st. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix is known for its beautiful, historic stained-glass windows. We look at the inspiration to restore them to their original brilliance.
Guests:
  • John Power - Director, Maricopa County Environmental Services
  • Dr. Bob England - Director, Maricopa County Department of Public Health


View Transcript
>>Cary Pfeffer:
Tonight on Horizon, there's been an increase in the number of West Nile virus cases in Maricopa County. We tour a typical backyard for hidden mosquito breeding spots. Plus, Tucson is more than the name of a city. It's also the name of a fast attack submarine. And St. Mary's Basilica in Phoenix is known for its historic stained glass windows. We look at how they were restored to their original brilliance. Those stories next on Horizon.

>>Announcer:
Horizon is made possible by contributions from the Friends of Eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Hello and welcome to Horizon. I'm Cary Pfeffer. With the monsoon here, there are a lot of puddles around and many of those are deep and warm enough and linger sufficiently for mosquitoes to breed in them. Those mosquitoes can carry the West Nile virus. There's been a marked increase in Maricopa County in the number of cases of West Nile. We will have more on that in just a moment. First, producer Merry Lucero looks around a typical backyard for hidden mosquito breeding grounds.

>>Merry Lucero:
You might think your backyard looks pristine, but it can have hidden breeding spots for mosquitoes that can carry the deadly West Nile virus. Rain or sprinkler water collected at the bases of trees and planted areas, in dishes or buckets, even your pets' water dish can be a danger.

>> Luis Navarro:
Toys, wheelbarrows, boats with the monsoons coming in, it rains, you don't cover it up, it can sustain water and they can become a breeding source for mosquitoes.

>>Merry Lucero:
If you think the water will evaporate before mosquitoes can breed, you're probably wrong.


>>Luis Navarro:
Depending on the species of mosquitoes, we do have some mosquitoes that we call floodwaters, that can actually go from an egg to an adult, from three to four days. And that is very fast. And then we have other species such as the Culex that we are concerned with. It takes a little bit longer but - depending on the temperature of the water because the metamorphosis depict by the temperature of the water-the warmer the water is there is a prime temperature that they'll develop very very fast so the culex can go from 5 to 6 days from the egg to the adult.

>>Merry Lucero:
You might be surprised at the small amount of water it takes.

>>Luis Navarro:
Some of the areas to look around your property for, it's like that little plant right there, as you can see when they water the plant, then you have standing water right there. And if the water by any chance stays there for three to four days, it's a good area for mosquitoes to breed in.

>>Merry Lucero:
Even just a tiny bit of water will do.

>>Luis Navarro:
We have seen, you know, mosquito breeding depending on the species, a bottle cap, you know, just a couple inches in the bottle. So they're very dynamic in their breeding and we have seen all kinds of sources.

>>Merry Lucero:
Then, of course, there is one of the worst sources, green stagnant swimming pools or decorative ponds can breed thousands of mosquitoes.

>>Luis Navarro:
Good example of swimming pools that are drained but with the monsoons all of a sudden you have a little two, three feet of water in the deep end. That can actually become a very bad breeder because the temperature of the water is right at that prime temperature.

>>Merry Lucero:
If there is a complaint about a pool, vector control officers will try to contact the property owner. If there's no response they will get a warrant to inspect the pool and take action.

>>Luis Navarro:
What we can do with the warrant is be able to go into the back of the property, make a thorough inspection, and if we find breeding in the pool, then what we do is we will spray it with a larvaecide and add mosquito fish to it. And it's just a guppy that eats mosquito larva. And that will prevent future breeding from that pool.

>>Merry Lucero:
The fish control the larvae for long periods. Maricopa County Environmental Services will locate areas where there is a lot of mosquito activity and set traps. The traps are checked every week. The mosquitoes are then tested to see if they have the West Nile virus. Fogging takes place at ground level from trucks where there is an accumulation of mosquitoes. Vector control also has an interesting tool for testing for the fowl virus - sentinel chickens. These chickens are naturally resistant to West Nile but will show the presence of the disease in their blood. A small amount is drawn from the birds and tested. To prevent mosquitoes from breeding in your yard, maintain your pool's filter system and eliminate all standing water. To avoid mosquitoes if you go outside, use insect repellant.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Here now to talk more about West Nile Virus are John Power, Director of Maricopa County's Environmental Services, and Dr. Bob England, Director of Maricopa County's Department of Public Health. Thank you very much, both of you, for being here. The first thing we should mention is that this is not a matter of us crying wolf here. John, this is the real thing. People need to indeed be aware of it.

>>John Power:
Yes, they do. We are having problems with the mosquitoes this year. It's more virulent than in previous years and more active than we have had in the last three years.


>>Cary Pfeffer:
You feel like you are pretty accurately able to sort of measure this process year-to-year, correct?

>>John Power:
Yes, we are. We have over 400 traps that we put out every week and we have been doing this, we do it all year round every week. And the numbers have been increasing as we have been getting closer into the summer season.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Speaking of numbers, Dr. England, why don't you tell us what you know about this year and what those numbers represent, what people should be able to interpret from them.

>>Bob England:
We're off to a flying start this year in our West Nile season. We have 15 human cases so far. That's about three times the number we had this time last year. We started human cases more than a month earlier than we did last year. We think we're in for a bad season. And most of these individuals that we are actually counting are really sick. They're in the hospital and they're very ill.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Because there are plenty of people who can be, receive that mosquito bite and not even realize it, but there is a certain group of people who end up getting that bite and then have severe symptoms?

>>Bob England:
Sure. Four-fifths of us won't have any symptoms at all and the rest will have West Nile fever, a milder form of the illness. What we are really worried about is that 1 percent or so who develop severe neuro-invasive disease, meningitis or encephalitis. And many people who don't die from that are still very severely impacted for years down the road.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Again, there is certainly some seriousness. I want to talk more about those patients in a minute. John, I want you to sort of describe and expand on what we saw there. I mean, you are out there looking but you also need people helping you look to make sure that they're vigilant about this process.

>>John Power:
We need people to complain. So far this year we have received over 6,000 complaints from citizens. We have the monitoring network but without people calling up and letting us know where they see a green pool or ponding water that's lasting three or four days isn't going away, we need to know about those areas so we can get out there, treat those areas with larvaecides, put traps up if necessary if the mosquito counts are high, so we can see whether we need to go farther with treatment of any type.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
While we continue the discussion, let's put that number up there if we haven't, the Maricopa County West Nile Virus hotline. Because people indeed are your helpers along the way as far as that's concerned. 602-506-0700. People shouldn't necessarily feel like they're uncomfortably talking about their neighbors. This is because it's a public health issue, it's a concern well beyond your neighbor's backyard.

>>John Power:
That is correct. And we do not give out the names of the complainants. The complainant's name remains anonymous. All we will do is go, investigate, we will put up the trap in the area, or if we have to, get a search warrant to go on the property, if the property owner will not let us on it on their own.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
One last thing for you, John, is we know we are in a little bit of a downturn as far as the real estate market is concerned. Does that sort of add to the numbers of abandoned homes, pools?

>>John Power:
Yes. Of the about 360 cases we've had to refer to the county attorney because people will not comply with the rules and clean up their backyards, one-third of those have been what we call abandoned properties, because the homeowner no longer has it. It's in receivership with the bank.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Kind of falls between the cracks. Dr. England, we talked in the taped piece about mosquito in a four or five-day period of time being out there and being able to infect people. Talk about the process from there. Let's say this, you know, there's been an appropriate breeding ground and there's that four or five-day period. Now that mosquito is out there. Talk about the process as it reaches that patient.

>>Bob England:
Yeah, we really need people to protect themselves. John's folks do a lot of good work but you can do more for yourself than anybody can do for you. So dump that standing water. Put that repellant on because once that mosquito is out there and is infected, your best protection is just to protect yourself. Put repellant on. If you notice you are getting bit by mosquitoes go inside. Do your work outside some other time. And call in as he says.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And then we are also talking about just like any other mosquito contact, oftentimes evening is a time that you will have more contact than usual.

>>Bob England:
Early in the morning, late in the evening.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Right. And then while you can't completely characterize a patient who would become seriously ill here, there might be some, is there any kind of guidance you can provide there?

>>Bob England:
Sure. Older persons in general are more at risk for more severe disease but that's far from a rule. And by older, we're talking my age and older.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Can't be that old.

>>Bob England:
Exactly. People need to take this seriously. In the scheme of things, there are a lot of risks out there. I don't want people to become paranoid about this. But you really do need to take it seriously enough where if you notice mosquitoes around, breeding in your yard, dump that water. If you notice you are getting bit by mosquitoes, please put repellant on or do your work outside at another time.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And, John, for the people who may remember the first time they heard about West Nile and thinking it was just going to be maybe one season, that's not the case. We are seeing to varying degrees, it sort of hanging around every summer.

>>John Power:
That is correct. About four years ago we had a real big season. And then since then, it slowed down, but it has been gradually picking up. And this has been happening around the country, not just in Arizona. So for people to think it will just go away, it's not going away. It's actually more in the Valley than it was, say, last year or the year before.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Are we likely to sort of see this ebb and flow process because of weather?

>>John Power:
The weather really has a big effect. When the monsoon comes in, as it has, we get a big upsurge. Last year, the monsoon didn't come in until late August. We didn't have an upsurge in mosquito problems until late August. This happened in June, July time frame. It's early. It's here.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And finally, Dr. England, you look to help from the medical community to make sure you are informed about what's going on out there.

>>Bob England:
Sure. And we need docs to consider this and look for it, especially in the more minor forms of the illness. The first cases each year tend to be people who are really sick and it's obvious. As the season picks up is when we get more reports of people with milder illness as the healthcare community starts looking for it more.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
That hotline number for Maricopa County West Nile Virus is 602-506-0700. Thank you both for being here. And appreciate your good work.

Two ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city of Tucson, Arizona. The first was a light cruiser commissioned in 1945, and decommissioned in 1949. The second is a Los Angeles class nuclear attack submarine commissioned in 1995, and on active duty as of 2006. Recently producer Christopher Conover and a group of residents from "The Old Pueblo" took a tour of the sub.

>> Christopher Conover:
When you tell people you live in Tucson, this is probably the image they imagine. But for 150 men in the U.S. Navy, this is their Tucson. Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine SSN-770, the USS Tucson. We spent a day on the Tucson along with some other guests from southern Arizona. Our first stop was the torpedo room. The USS Tucson is just over 360 feet long. And that means space is a premium. Yes, what you are looking at is a bunk under the torpedos. Obviously, the crew of the Tucson wasn't firing torpedos the day we were on board but they did fire what's called a water slug. That's shooting water out of a torpedo tube to simulate the launch of a real torpedo. The real action on a sub, though, takes place in the control room, which just as it sounds like, is where the skipper or officer of the deck controls the operations, like diving.

>>Background voices:
Dive. Dive. [alarm sounding]. Four two. Four four. Four six.

>> Christopher Conover:
The man in charge of the USS Tucson is Commander Paul Spear. And the 25-year career navy man says being in the silent service is unique.

>>Paul Spear:
Being a submariner's got its own nuances about it. We on purpose take a perfectly good ship and put it underneath the water, which some people find disconcerting. It takes about a year, and a lot of hard work on any individual's part, to qualify in submarines. And basically, that means any crew member is capable of both operating the ship and fighting the ship in the time of war.

>>Christopher Conover:
Part of working and living on a submarine is getting used to close quarters and what the crew calls angles and dangles.

>>Paul Spear:
We'll take 15, then a 20, and 25 degree angles. We will start going up. Take our time, there's no rush here. And seriously, if you are not by something that you can grab on to, please do that. It's a lot of fun as long as you don't go flying.

>>Christopher Conover:
All that nearly 100 fathoms below the surface. And for those of you who are fans of Tom Clancy's "The Hunt For Red October," we also did a Crazy Ivan.

>>Paul Spear:
Ten degrees rudder. Coming left.

>>Christopher Conover:
And speaking of Tom Clancy, The Tucson is featured in a Tom Clancy novel, as well as a book by Clive Cussler. To the men of The Tucson, the name of their ship is more than just a name.

>>Paul Spear:
We work really hard to develop and continue our relationship with both the City of Tucson and the State of Arizona. It's great. I have been in for 25 years, and I can tell you that I have never experienced the kind of relationship that we have with both the city and the state.

>>Christopher Conover:
Even though the USS Tucson is a long way from the desert, there's still plenty of signs of "The Old Pueblo."

>>Cory Field:
It's kind of humorous to see Tucson Boulevard, and the El Charro. I thought that was kind of funny, coming down here.

>>Christopher Conover:
And he would know all about living in Tucson since he graduated from Flowing Wells High School. But he's not the only member of the crew from "The Old Pueblo." Jacob Stark grew up near the university and has been on board for three years.

>>Jacob Stark:
I joined the navy the day after September 11, so I guess September 12, 2001. Actually shipped out to bootcamp. They made us a really, really nice sales pitch while we were in bootcamp and then the joint submarines. And then ended up being on The Tucson, I guess, because the detail they thought would be funny. But, no, I didn't choose to be on the Tucson, just kind of ended up being here.

>>Christopher Conover:
When the Tucson leaves port, the crew is generally away for about six months. Commander Spear says about 95 percent of that time is spent underwater. While many people can't imagine that, he says he loves his job.

>>Paul Spear:
As captain, the best part of it, and the reason I have continued to do it is the guys. You know, you just, you just can't beat the camaraderie and as you will see today and as people will see it when they come down for a tour, the guys just love to show off. They really love to show their ship off. I think as a submariner, you have mixed feelings. It's great to be on the surface. There's nothing better than surfacing the submarine and seeing, you know, a sunrise or a sunset. But being able to go underneath the water, go fast, take angles, it's almost like playing underneath the water. I think most of the guys enjoy that a lot.

>>Christopher Conover:
The Tucson pulled out of San Diego, headed for Norfolk, Virginia, where she'll spend the next 14 months in dry dock for some re-working after nearly 12 years at sea.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
St. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix takes special pride in its nearly century-old stained glass windows. But the wear of time and the expansion of the new Civic Plaza across the street were taking their toll on the windows. That inspired St. Mary's to restore the windows to their original brilliance. Producer Merry Lucero and videographers Richard Torruellas and Scot Olson bring us tonight's ‘Arizona Story.'

>>Merry Lucero:
Stained glass windows are thought to have evolved from ancient cloisonne, mosaic and jewelry-making. There's a mystery to the glittering art. A basic substance, sand, is transformed by fire, colored with metallic salts and oxides and set in patterns to glow from within. Early church windows told biblical stories because many early parishioners were not literate.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
For centuries, obviously we're talking about Europe, the stories of the glass were the stories that nurtured people's imaginations and their religious zeal and their heroes were Santa Ana or god knows who, and they will see stuff in the glass.

>>Jeffrey Campbell:
They wanted to be theologically correct but they were also meant to tell a story because there were a lot of people in the early 1900's who didn't read obviously. You can look at those windows and kind of tell a whole story by looking at them.

>>Merry Lucero:
The nearly century-old windows at St. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix still tell stories to people every day. Like this one of Jesus in the Temple.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
And we see him being respectfully heard by these elders. He should be respectfully listening and yet they are so wowed by the kid, so it's a lovely way to make these prophecies be fulfilled.

>>Merry Lucero:
St. Mary's is the mother of Catholic parishes in the Valley. Founded in 1881, and since 1914, staffed by Franciscan Friars, or as Father Alonso calls them, the boys in brown.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
They were German foundations by German Franciscans who came, thank God, to fill in the gap, where there were no other Franciscans around. They came over and we made an appeal. We said, hey, guys, fellow Franciscans, we've run out of guys here, can you send some over?

>>Merry Lucero:
In the early 1900's, the windows at St. Mary's were crafted in St. Louis and brought here by their maker, Emile Frei.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
We tracked down the actual shop that turned them out and went to them. I think the grandson was still there and so, yeah, they said that he had brought them out, he assembled them in St. Louis and came out on the train with these things in wooden crates holding on to everything, chugga chugga chugga.

>>John Phillips:
They're known for being very nice windows. These windows in particular are one of the better sets I had ever seen them do. They are extraordinary windows.

>>Merry Lucero:
Each piece of stained glass is hand painted and fired in a
1,200-degree kiln several times until the paint becomes part of the glass. Set in wooden frames, the glass and lead have withstood the Phoenix heat for more than 90 years. But time and the renovation of the new Phoenix Civic Plaza across the street caused concern.

>>Jeffrey Campbell:
The foundation was all un-reinforced masonry. There's no steel rebars in our foundations of any kind. Subsequently the building is more susceptible to vibration and any damage that might occur because of the construction next door.

>>Merry Lucero:
So some art glass experts were called in.

>>John Phillips:
We found multiple bulging where the window bows in and out. There were broken out pieces. The frames are in need of conditioning. They've cracked and dried out and repainted. We had some previous repairs that were coming undone that we had to do.

>>Merry Lucero:
Phillips and his craftsmen began the tricky procedure of removing the windows. Then set up shop on site at St. Mary's.

>>John Phillips:
Usually about every 100, 125 years, you need to completely re-lead them. Take them apart piece by piece.

>>Merry Lucero:
But generally, St. Mary's windows were in good condition.

>>John Phillips:
Part of having stained glass windows is you have to maintain them. They're not where you put them in and let go. You have to continually be doing maintenance on them. Fortunately this building and this diocese is real good about that.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
There was quite a sacrifice in our obtaining them and revering them and of course, part of it is, yes, people have the need for continuity. Their grandparents have seen them. In fact, some of their grandparents' names are up here.

>>John Phillips:
I think they see the building as a very important part of Phoenix as it is today. I think they also see it as an important part of the future ongoing. And it is. It's a jewel, in the heart of downtown Phoenix.

>>Merry Lucero:
And the jewel-like stained glass windows of St. Mary's Basilica shine once again, restored as the view that parishioners can look into and through as they travel on their own spiritual journies.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And thanks for joining us on this Tuesday evening. I'm Cary Pfeffer.

USS Tucson


  • Two ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city of Tucson, Arizona. The first was a light cruiser, commissioned in 1945 and decommissioned in 1949. The second is a Los Angeles-Class nuclear attack submarine commissioned in 1995 and on active duty as of 2006. Recently, reporter Christopher Conover and a group of residents from The Old Pueblo took a tour of the sub.
Guests:
  • John Power - Director, Maricopa County Environmental Services
  • Dr. Bob England - Director, Maricopa County Department of Public Health


View Transcript
>>Cary Pfeffer:
Tonight on Horizon, there's been an increase in the number of West Nile virus cases in Maricopa County. We tour a typical backyard for hidden mosquito breeding spots. Plus, Tucson is more than the name of a city. It's also the name of a fast attack submarine. And St. Mary's Basilica in Phoenix is known for its historic stained glass windows. We look at how they were restored to their original brilliance. Those stories next on Horizon.

>>Announcer:
Horizon is made possible by contributions from the Friends of Eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Hello and welcome to Horizon. I'm Cary Pfeffer. With the monsoon here, there are a lot of puddles around and many of those are deep and warm enough and linger sufficiently for mosquitoes to breed in them. Those mosquitoes can carry the West Nile virus. There's been a marked increase in Maricopa County in the number of cases of West Nile. We will have more on that in just a moment. First, producer Merry Lucero looks around a typical backyard for hidden mosquito breeding grounds.

>>Merry Lucero:
You might think your backyard looks pristine, but it can have hidden breeding spots for mosquitoes that can carry the deadly West Nile virus. Rain or sprinkler water collected at the bases of trees and planted areas, in dishes or buckets, even your pets' water dish can be a danger.

>> Luis Navarro:
Toys, wheelbarrows, boats with the monsoons coming in, it rains, you don't cover it up, it can sustain water and they can become a breeding source for mosquitoes.

>>Merry Lucero:
If you think the water will evaporate before mosquitoes can breed, you're probably wrong.


>>Luis Navarro:
Depending on the species of mosquitoes, we do have some mosquitoes that we call floodwaters, that can actually go from an egg to an adult, from three to four days. And that is very fast. And then we have other species such as the Culex that we are concerned with. It takes a little bit longer but - depending on the temperature of the water because the metamorphosis depict by the temperature of the water-the warmer the water is there is a prime temperature that they'll develop very very fast so the culex can go from 5 to 6 days from the egg to the adult.

>>Merry Lucero:
You might be surprised at the small amount of water it takes.

>>Luis Navarro:
Some of the areas to look around your property for, it's like that little plant right there, as you can see when they water the plant, then you have standing water right there. And if the water by any chance stays there for three to four days, it's a good area for mosquitoes to breed in.

>>Merry Lucero:
Even just a tiny bit of water will do.

>>Luis Navarro:
We have seen, you know, mosquito breeding depending on the species, a bottle cap, you know, just a couple inches in the bottle. So they're very dynamic in their breeding and we have seen all kinds of sources.

>>Merry Lucero:
Then, of course, there is one of the worst sources, green stagnant swimming pools or decorative ponds can breed thousands of mosquitoes.

>>Luis Navarro:
Good example of swimming pools that are drained but with the monsoons all of a sudden you have a little two, three feet of water in the deep end. That can actually become a very bad breeder because the temperature of the water is right at that prime temperature.

>>Merry Lucero:
If there is a complaint about a pool, vector control officers will try to contact the property owner. If there's no response they will get a warrant to inspect the pool and take action.

>>Luis Navarro:
What we can do with the warrant is be able to go into the back of the property, make a thorough inspection, and if we find breeding in the pool, then what we do is we will spray it with a larvaecide and add mosquito fish to it. And it's just a guppy that eats mosquito larva. And that will prevent future breeding from that pool.

>>Merry Lucero:
The fish control the larvae for long periods. Maricopa County Environmental Services will locate areas where there is a lot of mosquito activity and set traps. The traps are checked every week. The mosquitoes are then tested to see if they have the West Nile virus. Fogging takes place at ground level from trucks where there is an accumulation of mosquitoes. Vector control also has an interesting tool for testing for the fowl virus - sentinel chickens. These chickens are naturally resistant to West Nile but will show the presence of the disease in their blood. A small amount is drawn from the birds and tested. To prevent mosquitoes from breeding in your yard, maintain your pool's filter system and eliminate all standing water. To avoid mosquitoes if you go outside, use insect repellant.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Here now to talk more about West Nile Virus are John Power, Director of Maricopa County's Environmental Services, and Dr. Bob England, Director of Maricopa County's Department of Public Health. Thank you very much, both of you, for being here. The first thing we should mention is that this is not a matter of us crying wolf here. John, this is the real thing. People need to indeed be aware of it.

>>John Power:
Yes, they do. We are having problems with the mosquitoes this year. It's more virulent than in previous years and more active than we have had in the last three years.


>>Cary Pfeffer:
You feel like you are pretty accurately able to sort of measure this process year-to-year, correct?

>>John Power:
Yes, we are. We have over 400 traps that we put out every week and we have been doing this, we do it all year round every week. And the numbers have been increasing as we have been getting closer into the summer season.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Speaking of numbers, Dr. England, why don't you tell us what you know about this year and what those numbers represent, what people should be able to interpret from them.

>>Bob England:
We're off to a flying start this year in our West Nile season. We have 15 human cases so far. That's about three times the number we had this time last year. We started human cases more than a month earlier than we did last year. We think we're in for a bad season. And most of these individuals that we are actually counting are really sick. They're in the hospital and they're very ill.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Because there are plenty of people who can be, receive that mosquito bite and not even realize it, but there is a certain group of people who end up getting that bite and then have severe symptoms?

>>Bob England:
Sure. Four-fifths of us won't have any symptoms at all and the rest will have West Nile fever, a milder form of the illness. What we are really worried about is that 1 percent or so who develop severe neuro-invasive disease, meningitis or encephalitis. And many people who don't die from that are still very severely impacted for years down the road.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Again, there is certainly some seriousness. I want to talk more about those patients in a minute. John, I want you to sort of describe and expand on what we saw there. I mean, you are out there looking but you also need people helping you look to make sure that they're vigilant about this process.

>>John Power:
We need people to complain. So far this year we have received over 6,000 complaints from citizens. We have the monitoring network but without people calling up and letting us know where they see a green pool or ponding water that's lasting three or four days isn't going away, we need to know about those areas so we can get out there, treat those areas with larvaecides, put traps up if necessary if the mosquito counts are high, so we can see whether we need to go farther with treatment of any type.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
While we continue the discussion, let's put that number up there if we haven't, the Maricopa County West Nile Virus hotline. Because people indeed are your helpers along the way as far as that's concerned. 602-506-0700. People shouldn't necessarily feel like they're uncomfortably talking about their neighbors. This is because it's a public health issue, it's a concern well beyond your neighbor's backyard.

>>John Power:
That is correct. And we do not give out the names of the complainants. The complainant's name remains anonymous. All we will do is go, investigate, we will put up the trap in the area, or if we have to, get a search warrant to go on the property, if the property owner will not let us on it on their own.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
One last thing for you, John, is we know we are in a little bit of a downturn as far as the real estate market is concerned. Does that sort of add to the numbers of abandoned homes, pools?

>>John Power:
Yes. Of the about 360 cases we've had to refer to the county attorney because people will not comply with the rules and clean up their backyards, one-third of those have been what we call abandoned properties, because the homeowner no longer has it. It's in receivership with the bank.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Kind of falls between the cracks. Dr. England, we talked in the taped piece about mosquito in a four or five-day period of time being out there and being able to infect people. Talk about the process from there. Let's say this, you know, there's been an appropriate breeding ground and there's that four or five-day period. Now that mosquito is out there. Talk about the process as it reaches that patient.

>>Bob England:
Yeah, we really need people to protect themselves. John's folks do a lot of good work but you can do more for yourself than anybody can do for you. So dump that standing water. Put that repellant on because once that mosquito is out there and is infected, your best protection is just to protect yourself. Put repellant on. If you notice you are getting bit by mosquitoes go inside. Do your work outside some other time. And call in as he says.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And then we are also talking about just like any other mosquito contact, oftentimes evening is a time that you will have more contact than usual.

>>Bob England:
Early in the morning, late in the evening.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Right. And then while you can't completely characterize a patient who would become seriously ill here, there might be some, is there any kind of guidance you can provide there?

>>Bob England:
Sure. Older persons in general are more at risk for more severe disease but that's far from a rule. And by older, we're talking my age and older.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Can't be that old.

>>Bob England:
Exactly. People need to take this seriously. In the scheme of things, there are a lot of risks out there. I don't want people to become paranoid about this. But you really do need to take it seriously enough where if you notice mosquitoes around, breeding in your yard, dump that water. If you notice you are getting bit by mosquitoes, please put repellant on or do your work outside at another time.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And, John, for the people who may remember the first time they heard about West Nile and thinking it was just going to be maybe one season, that's not the case. We are seeing to varying degrees, it sort of hanging around every summer.

>>John Power:
That is correct. About four years ago we had a real big season. And then since then, it slowed down, but it has been gradually picking up. And this has been happening around the country, not just in Arizona. So for people to think it will just go away, it's not going away. It's actually more in the Valley than it was, say, last year or the year before.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Are we likely to sort of see this ebb and flow process because of weather?

>>John Power:
The weather really has a big effect. When the monsoon comes in, as it has, we get a big upsurge. Last year, the monsoon didn't come in until late August. We didn't have an upsurge in mosquito problems until late August. This happened in June, July time frame. It's early. It's here.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And finally, Dr. England, you look to help from the medical community to make sure you are informed about what's going on out there.

>>Bob England:
Sure. And we need docs to consider this and look for it, especially in the more minor forms of the illness. The first cases each year tend to be people who are really sick and it's obvious. As the season picks up is when we get more reports of people with milder illness as the healthcare community starts looking for it more.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
That hotline number for Maricopa County West Nile Virus is 602-506-0700. Thank you both for being here. And appreciate your good work.

Two ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city of Tucson, Arizona. The first was a light cruiser commissioned in 1945, and decommissioned in 1949. The second is a Los Angeles class nuclear attack submarine commissioned in 1995, and on active duty as of 2006. Recently producer Christopher Conover and a group of residents from "The Old Pueblo" took a tour of the sub.

>> Christopher Conover:
When you tell people you live in Tucson, this is probably the image they imagine. But for 150 men in the U.S. Navy, this is their Tucson. Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine SSN-770, the USS Tucson. We spent a day on the Tucson along with some other guests from southern Arizona. Our first stop was the torpedo room. The USS Tucson is just over 360 feet long. And that means space is a premium. Yes, what you are looking at is a bunk under the torpedos. Obviously, the crew of the Tucson wasn't firing torpedos the day we were on board but they did fire what's called a water slug. That's shooting water out of a torpedo tube to simulate the launch of a real torpedo. The real action on a sub, though, takes place in the control room, which just as it sounds like, is where the skipper or officer of the deck controls the operations, like diving.

>>Background voices:
Dive. Dive. [alarm sounding]. Four two. Four four. Four six.

>> Christopher Conover:
The man in charge of the USS Tucson is Commander Paul Spear. And the 25-year career navy man says being in the silent service is unique.

>>Paul Spear:
Being a submariner's got its own nuances about it. We on purpose take a perfectly good ship and put it underneath the water, which some people find disconcerting. It takes about a year, and a lot of hard work on any individual's part, to qualify in submarines. And basically, that means any crew member is capable of both operating the ship and fighting the ship in the time of war.

>>Christopher Conover:
Part of working and living on a submarine is getting used to close quarters and what the crew calls angles and dangles.

>>Paul Spear:
We'll take 15, then a 20, and 25 degree angles. We will start going up. Take our time, there's no rush here. And seriously, if you are not by something that you can grab on to, please do that. It's a lot of fun as long as you don't go flying.

>>Christopher Conover:
All that nearly 100 fathoms below the surface. And for those of you who are fans of Tom Clancy's "The Hunt For Red October," we also did a Crazy Ivan.

>>Paul Spear:
Ten degrees rudder. Coming left.

>>Christopher Conover:
And speaking of Tom Clancy, The Tucson is featured in a Tom Clancy novel, as well as a book by Clive Cussler. To the men of The Tucson, the name of their ship is more than just a name.

>>Paul Spear:
We work really hard to develop and continue our relationship with both the City of Tucson and the State of Arizona. It's great. I have been in for 25 years, and I can tell you that I have never experienced the kind of relationship that we have with both the city and the state.

>>Christopher Conover:
Even though the USS Tucson is a long way from the desert, there's still plenty of signs of "The Old Pueblo."

>>Cory Field:
It's kind of humorous to see Tucson Boulevard, and the El Charro. I thought that was kind of funny, coming down here.

>>Christopher Conover:
And he would know all about living in Tucson since he graduated from Flowing Wells High School. But he's not the only member of the crew from "The Old Pueblo." Jacob Stark grew up near the university and has been on board for three years.

>>Jacob Stark:
I joined the navy the day after September 11, so I guess September 12, 2001. Actually shipped out to bootcamp. They made us a really, really nice sales pitch while we were in bootcamp and then the joint submarines. And then ended up being on The Tucson, I guess, because the detail they thought would be funny. But, no, I didn't choose to be on the Tucson, just kind of ended up being here.

>>Christopher Conover:
When the Tucson leaves port, the crew is generally away for about six months. Commander Spear says about 95 percent of that time is spent underwater. While many people can't imagine that, he says he loves his job.

>>Paul Spear:
As captain, the best part of it, and the reason I have continued to do it is the guys. You know, you just, you just can't beat the camaraderie and as you will see today and as people will see it when they come down for a tour, the guys just love to show off. They really love to show their ship off. I think as a submariner, you have mixed feelings. It's great to be on the surface. There's nothing better than surfacing the submarine and seeing, you know, a sunrise or a sunset. But being able to go underneath the water, go fast, take angles, it's almost like playing underneath the water. I think most of the guys enjoy that a lot.

>>Christopher Conover:
The Tucson pulled out of San Diego, headed for Norfolk, Virginia, where she'll spend the next 14 months in dry dock for some re-working after nearly 12 years at sea.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
St. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix takes special pride in its nearly century-old stained glass windows. But the wear of time and the expansion of the new Civic Plaza across the street were taking their toll on the windows. That inspired St. Mary's to restore the windows to their original brilliance. Producer Merry Lucero and videographers Richard Torruellas and Scot Olson bring us tonight's ‘Arizona Story.'

>>Merry Lucero:
Stained glass windows are thought to have evolved from ancient cloisonne, mosaic and jewelry-making. There's a mystery to the glittering art. A basic substance, sand, is transformed by fire, colored with metallic salts and oxides and set in patterns to glow from within. Early church windows told biblical stories because many early parishioners were not literate.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
For centuries, obviously we're talking about Europe, the stories of the glass were the stories that nurtured people's imaginations and their religious zeal and their heroes were Santa Ana or god knows who, and they will see stuff in the glass.

>>Jeffrey Campbell:
They wanted to be theologically correct but they were also meant to tell a story because there were a lot of people in the early 1900's who didn't read obviously. You can look at those windows and kind of tell a whole story by looking at them.

>>Merry Lucero:
The nearly century-old windows at St. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix still tell stories to people every day. Like this one of Jesus in the Temple.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
And we see him being respectfully heard by these elders. He should be respectfully listening and yet they are so wowed by the kid, so it's a lovely way to make these prophecies be fulfilled.

>>Merry Lucero:
St. Mary's is the mother of Catholic parishes in the Valley. Founded in 1881, and since 1914, staffed by Franciscan Friars, or as Father Alonso calls them, the boys in brown.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
They were German foundations by German Franciscans who came, thank God, to fill in the gap, where there were no other Franciscans around. They came over and we made an appeal. We said, hey, guys, fellow Franciscans, we've run out of guys here, can you send some over?

>>Merry Lucero:
In the early 1900's, the windows at St. Mary's were crafted in St. Louis and brought here by their maker, Emile Frei.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
We tracked down the actual shop that turned them out and went to them. I think the grandson was still there and so, yeah, they said that he had brought them out, he assembled them in St. Louis and came out on the train with these things in wooden crates holding on to everything, chugga chugga chugga.

>>John Phillips:
They're known for being very nice windows. These windows in particular are one of the better sets I had ever seen them do. They are extraordinary windows.

>>Merry Lucero:
Each piece of stained glass is hand painted and fired in a
1,200-degree kiln several times until the paint becomes part of the glass. Set in wooden frames, the glass and lead have withstood the Phoenix heat for more than 90 years. But time and the renovation of the new Phoenix Civic Plaza across the street caused concern.

>>Jeffrey Campbell:
The foundation was all un-reinforced masonry. There's no steel rebars in our foundations of any kind. Subsequently the building is more susceptible to vibration and any damage that might occur because of the construction next door.

>>Merry Lucero:
So some art glass experts were called in.

>>John Phillips:
We found multiple bulging where the window bows in and out. There were broken out pieces. The frames are in need of conditioning. They've cracked and dried out and repainted. We had some previous repairs that were coming undone that we had to do.

>>Merry Lucero:
Phillips and his craftsmen began the tricky procedure of removing the windows. Then set up shop on site at St. Mary's.

>>John Phillips:
Usually about every 100, 125 years, you need to completely re-lead them. Take them apart piece by piece.

>>Merry Lucero:
But generally, St. Mary's windows were in good condition.

>>John Phillips:
Part of having stained glass windows is you have to maintain them. They're not where you put them in and let go. You have to continually be doing maintenance on them. Fortunately this building and this diocese is real good about that.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
There was quite a sacrifice in our obtaining them and revering them and of course, part of it is, yes, people have the need for continuity. Their grandparents have seen them. In fact, some of their grandparents' names are up here.

>>John Phillips:
I think they see the building as a very important part of Phoenix as it is today. I think they also see it as an important part of the future ongoing. And it is. It's a jewel, in the heart of downtown Phoenix.

>>Merry Lucero:
And the jewel-like stained glass windows of St. Mary's Basilica shine once again, restored as the view that parishioners can look into and through as they travel on their own spiritual journies.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And thanks for joining us on this Tuesday evening. I'm Cary Pfeffer.

West Nile Virus


  • In the past month, the number of confirmed West Nile Virus cases in Maricopa County has significantly increased. Backyards are a primary culprit for hidden breeding places for the mosquitoes that carry the disease. We examine a typical backyard with Maricopa County Environmental Services’ Vector Control to find some surprising breeding places and learn how to eliminate these areas.
Guests:
  • John Power - Director, Maricopa County Environmental Services
  • Dr. Bob England - Director, Maricopa County Department of Public Health
Category: Medical/Health

View Transcript
>>Cary Pfeffer:
Tonight on Horizon, there's been an increase in the number of West Nile virus cases in Maricopa County. We tour a typical backyard for hidden mosquito breeding spots. Plus, Tucson is more than the name of a city. It's also the name of a fast attack submarine. And St. Mary's Basilica in Phoenix is known for its historic stained glass windows. We look at how they were restored to their original brilliance. Those stories next on Horizon.

>>Announcer:
Horizon is made possible by contributions from the Friends of Eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Hello and welcome to Horizon. I'm Cary Pfeffer. With the monsoon here, there are a lot of puddles around and many of those are deep and warm enough and linger sufficiently for mosquitoes to breed in them. Those mosquitoes can carry the West Nile virus. There's been a marked increase in Maricopa County in the number of cases of West Nile. We will have more on that in just a moment. First, producer Merry Lucero looks around a typical backyard for hidden mosquito breeding grounds.

>>Merry Lucero:
You might think your backyard looks pristine, but it can have hidden breeding spots for mosquitoes that can carry the deadly West Nile virus. Rain or sprinkler water collected at the bases of trees and planted areas, in dishes or buckets, even your pets' water dish can be a danger.

>> Luis Navarro:
Toys, wheelbarrows, boats with the monsoons coming in, it rains, you don't cover it up, it can sustain water and they can become a breeding source for mosquitoes.

>>Merry Lucero:
If you think the water will evaporate before mosquitoes can breed, you're probably wrong.


>>Luis Navarro:
Depending on the species of mosquitoes, we do have some mosquitoes that we call floodwaters, that can actually go from an egg to an adult, from three to four days. And that is very fast. And then we have other species such as the Culex that we are concerned with. It takes a little bit longer but - depending on the temperature of the water because the metamorphosis depict by the temperature of the water-the warmer the water is there is a prime temperature that they'll develop very very fast so the culex can go from 5 to 6 days from the egg to the adult.

>>Merry Lucero:
You might be surprised at the small amount of water it takes.

>>Luis Navarro:
Some of the areas to look around your property for, it's like that little plant right there, as you can see when they water the plant, then you have standing water right there. And if the water by any chance stays there for three to four days, it's a good area for mosquitoes to breed in.

>>Merry Lucero:
Even just a tiny bit of water will do.

>>Luis Navarro:
We have seen, you know, mosquito breeding depending on the species, a bottle cap, you know, just a couple inches in the bottle. So they're very dynamic in their breeding and we have seen all kinds of sources.

>>Merry Lucero:
Then, of course, there is one of the worst sources, green stagnant swimming pools or decorative ponds can breed thousands of mosquitoes.

>>Luis Navarro:
Good example of swimming pools that are drained but with the monsoons all of a sudden you have a little two, three feet of water in the deep end. That can actually become a very bad breeder because the temperature of the water is right at that prime temperature.

>>Merry Lucero:
If there is a complaint about a pool, vector control officers will try to contact the property owner. If there's no response they will get a warrant to inspect the pool and take action.

>>Luis Navarro:
What we can do with the warrant is be able to go into the back of the property, make a thorough inspection, and if we find breeding in the pool, then what we do is we will spray it with a larvaecide and add mosquito fish to it. And it's just a guppy that eats mosquito larva. And that will prevent future breeding from that pool.

>>Merry Lucero:
The fish control the larvae for long periods. Maricopa County Environmental Services will locate areas where there is a lot of mosquito activity and set traps. The traps are checked every week. The mosquitoes are then tested to see if they have the West Nile virus. Fogging takes place at ground level from trucks where there is an accumulation of mosquitoes. Vector control also has an interesting tool for testing for the fowl virus - sentinel chickens. These chickens are naturally resistant to West Nile but will show the presence of the disease in their blood. A small amount is drawn from the birds and tested. To prevent mosquitoes from breeding in your yard, maintain your pool's filter system and eliminate all standing water. To avoid mosquitoes if you go outside, use insect repellant.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Here now to talk more about West Nile Virus are John Power, Director of Maricopa County's Environmental Services, and Dr. Bob England, Director of Maricopa County's Department of Public Health. Thank you very much, both of you, for being here. The first thing we should mention is that this is not a matter of us crying wolf here. John, this is the real thing. People need to indeed be aware of it.

>>John Power:
Yes, they do. We are having problems with the mosquitoes this year. It's more virulent than in previous years and more active than we have had in the last three years.


>>Cary Pfeffer:
You feel like you are pretty accurately able to sort of measure this process year-to-year, correct?

>>John Power:
Yes, we are. We have over 400 traps that we put out every week and we have been doing this, we do it all year round every week. And the numbers have been increasing as we have been getting closer into the summer season.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Speaking of numbers, Dr. England, why don't you tell us what you know about this year and what those numbers represent, what people should be able to interpret from them.

>>Bob England:
We're off to a flying start this year in our West Nile season. We have 15 human cases so far. That's about three times the number we had this time last year. We started human cases more than a month earlier than we did last year. We think we're in for a bad season. And most of these individuals that we are actually counting are really sick. They're in the hospital and they're very ill.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Because there are plenty of people who can be, receive that mosquito bite and not even realize it, but there is a certain group of people who end up getting that bite and then have severe symptoms?

>>Bob England:
Sure. Four-fifths of us won't have any symptoms at all and the rest will have West Nile fever, a milder form of the illness. What we are really worried about is that 1 percent or so who develop severe neuro-invasive disease, meningitis or encephalitis. And many people who don't die from that are still very severely impacted for years down the road.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Again, there is certainly some seriousness. I want to talk more about those patients in a minute. John, I want you to sort of describe and expand on what we saw there. I mean, you are out there looking but you also need people helping you look to make sure that they're vigilant about this process.

>>John Power:
We need people to complain. So far this year we have received over 6,000 complaints from citizens. We have the monitoring network but without people calling up and letting us know where they see a green pool or ponding water that's lasting three or four days isn't going away, we need to know about those areas so we can get out there, treat those areas with larvaecides, put traps up if necessary if the mosquito counts are high, so we can see whether we need to go farther with treatment of any type.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
While we continue the discussion, let's put that number up there if we haven't, the Maricopa County West Nile Virus hotline. Because people indeed are your helpers along the way as far as that's concerned. 602-506-0700. People shouldn't necessarily feel like they're uncomfortably talking about their neighbors. This is because it's a public health issue, it's a concern well beyond your neighbor's backyard.

>>John Power:
That is correct. And we do not give out the names of the complainants. The complainant's name remains anonymous. All we will do is go, investigate, we will put up the trap in the area, or if we have to, get a search warrant to go on the property, if the property owner will not let us on it on their own.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
One last thing for you, John, is we know we are in a little bit of a downturn as far as the real estate market is concerned. Does that sort of add to the numbers of abandoned homes, pools?

>>John Power:
Yes. Of the about 360 cases we've had to refer to the county attorney because people will not comply with the rules and clean up their backyards, one-third of those have been what we call abandoned properties, because the homeowner no longer has it. It's in receivership with the bank.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Kind of falls between the cracks. Dr. England, we talked in the taped piece about mosquito in a four or five-day period of time being out there and being able to infect people. Talk about the process from there. Let's say this, you know, there's been an appropriate breeding ground and there's that four or five-day period. Now that mosquito is out there. Talk about the process as it reaches that patient.

>>Bob England:
Yeah, we really need people to protect themselves. John's folks do a lot of good work but you can do more for yourself than anybody can do for you. So dump that standing water. Put that repellant on because once that mosquito is out there and is infected, your best protection is just to protect yourself. Put repellant on. If you notice you are getting bit by mosquitoes go inside. Do your work outside some other time. And call in as he says.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And then we are also talking about just like any other mosquito contact, oftentimes evening is a time that you will have more contact than usual.

>>Bob England:
Early in the morning, late in the evening.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Right. And then while you can't completely characterize a patient who would become seriously ill here, there might be some, is there any kind of guidance you can provide there?

>>Bob England:
Sure. Older persons in general are more at risk for more severe disease but that's far from a rule. And by older, we're talking my age and older.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Can't be that old.

>>Bob England:
Exactly. People need to take this seriously. In the scheme of things, there are a lot of risks out there. I don't want people to become paranoid about this. But you really do need to take it seriously enough where if you notice mosquitoes around, breeding in your yard, dump that water. If you notice you are getting bit by mosquitoes, please put repellant on or do your work outside at another time.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And, John, for the people who may remember the first time they heard about West Nile and thinking it was just going to be maybe one season, that's not the case. We are seeing to varying degrees, it sort of hanging around every summer.

>>John Power:
That is correct. About four years ago we had a real big season. And then since then, it slowed down, but it has been gradually picking up. And this has been happening around the country, not just in Arizona. So for people to think it will just go away, it's not going away. It's actually more in the Valley than it was, say, last year or the year before.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
Are we likely to sort of see this ebb and flow process because of weather?

>>John Power:
The weather really has a big effect. When the monsoon comes in, as it has, we get a big upsurge. Last year, the monsoon didn't come in until late August. We didn't have an upsurge in mosquito problems until late August. This happened in June, July time frame. It's early. It's here.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And finally, Dr. England, you look to help from the medical community to make sure you are informed about what's going on out there.

>>Bob England:
Sure. And we need docs to consider this and look for it, especially in the more minor forms of the illness. The first cases each year tend to be people who are really sick and it's obvious. As the season picks up is when we get more reports of people with milder illness as the healthcare community starts looking for it more.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
That hotline number for Maricopa County West Nile Virus is 602-506-0700. Thank you both for being here. And appreciate your good work.

Two ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city of Tucson, Arizona. The first was a light cruiser commissioned in 1945, and decommissioned in 1949. The second is a Los Angeles class nuclear attack submarine commissioned in 1995, and on active duty as of 2006. Recently producer Christopher Conover and a group of residents from "The Old Pueblo" took a tour of the sub.

>> Christopher Conover:
When you tell people you live in Tucson, this is probably the image they imagine. But for 150 men in the U.S. Navy, this is their Tucson. Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine SSN-770, the USS Tucson. We spent a day on the Tucson along with some other guests from southern Arizona. Our first stop was the torpedo room. The USS Tucson is just over 360 feet long. And that means space is a premium. Yes, what you are looking at is a bunk under the torpedos. Obviously, the crew of the Tucson wasn't firing torpedos the day we were on board but they did fire what's called a water slug. That's shooting water out of a torpedo tube to simulate the launch of a real torpedo. The real action on a sub, though, takes place in the control room, which just as it sounds like, is where the skipper or officer of the deck controls the operations, like diving.

>>Background voices:
Dive. Dive. [alarm sounding]. Four two. Four four. Four six.

>> Christopher Conover:
The man in charge of the USS Tucson is Commander Paul Spear. And the 25-year career navy man says being in the silent service is unique.

>>Paul Spear:
Being a submariner's got its own nuances about it. We on purpose take a perfectly good ship and put it underneath the water, which some people find disconcerting. It takes about a year, and a lot of hard work on any individual's part, to qualify in submarines. And basically, that means any crew member is capable of both operating the ship and fighting the ship in the time of war.

>>Christopher Conover:
Part of working and living on a submarine is getting used to close quarters and what the crew calls angles and dangles.

>>Paul Spear:
We'll take 15, then a 20, and 25 degree angles. We will start going up. Take our time, there's no rush here. And seriously, if you are not by something that you can grab on to, please do that. It's a lot of fun as long as you don't go flying.

>>Christopher Conover:
All that nearly 100 fathoms below the surface. And for those of you who are fans of Tom Clancy's "The Hunt For Red October," we also did a Crazy Ivan.

>>Paul Spear:
Ten degrees rudder. Coming left.

>>Christopher Conover:
And speaking of Tom Clancy, The Tucson is featured in a Tom Clancy novel, as well as a book by Clive Cussler. To the men of The Tucson, the name of their ship is more than just a name.

>>Paul Spear:
We work really hard to develop and continue our relationship with both the City of Tucson and the State of Arizona. It's great. I have been in for 25 years, and I can tell you that I have never experienced the kind of relationship that we have with both the city and the state.

>>Christopher Conover:
Even though the USS Tucson is a long way from the desert, there's still plenty of signs of "The Old Pueblo."

>>Cory Field:
It's kind of humorous to see Tucson Boulevard, and the El Charro. I thought that was kind of funny, coming down here.

>>Christopher Conover:
And he would know all about living in Tucson since he graduated from Flowing Wells High School. But he's not the only member of the crew from "The Old Pueblo." Jacob Stark grew up near the university and has been on board for three years.

>>Jacob Stark:
I joined the navy the day after September 11, so I guess September 12, 2001. Actually shipped out to bootcamp. They made us a really, really nice sales pitch while we were in bootcamp and then the joint submarines. And then ended up being on The Tucson, I guess, because the detail they thought would be funny. But, no, I didn't choose to be on the Tucson, just kind of ended up being here.

>>Christopher Conover:
When the Tucson leaves port, the crew is generally away for about six months. Commander Spear says about 95 percent of that time is spent underwater. While many people can't imagine that, he says he loves his job.

>>Paul Spear:
As captain, the best part of it, and the reason I have continued to do it is the guys. You know, you just, you just can't beat the camaraderie and as you will see today and as people will see it when they come down for a tour, the guys just love to show off. They really love to show their ship off. I think as a submariner, you have mixed feelings. It's great to be on the surface. There's nothing better than surfacing the submarine and seeing, you know, a sunrise or a sunset. But being able to go underneath the water, go fast, take angles, it's almost like playing underneath the water. I think most of the guys enjoy that a lot.

>>Christopher Conover:
The Tucson pulled out of San Diego, headed for Norfolk, Virginia, where she'll spend the next 14 months in dry dock for some re-working after nearly 12 years at sea.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
St. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix takes special pride in its nearly century-old stained glass windows. But the wear of time and the expansion of the new Civic Plaza across the street were taking their toll on the windows. That inspired St. Mary's to restore the windows to their original brilliance. Producer Merry Lucero and videographers Richard Torruellas and Scot Olson bring us tonight's ‘Arizona Story.'

>>Merry Lucero:
Stained glass windows are thought to have evolved from ancient cloisonne, mosaic and jewelry-making. There's a mystery to the glittering art. A basic substance, sand, is transformed by fire, colored with metallic salts and oxides and set in patterns to glow from within. Early church windows told biblical stories because many early parishioners were not literate.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
For centuries, obviously we're talking about Europe, the stories of the glass were the stories that nurtured people's imaginations and their religious zeal and their heroes were Santa Ana or god knows who, and they will see stuff in the glass.

>>Jeffrey Campbell:
They wanted to be theologically correct but they were also meant to tell a story because there were a lot of people in the early 1900's who didn't read obviously. You can look at those windows and kind of tell a whole story by looking at them.

>>Merry Lucero:
The nearly century-old windows at St. Mary's Basilica in downtown Phoenix still tell stories to people every day. Like this one of Jesus in the Temple.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
And we see him being respectfully heard by these elders. He should be respectfully listening and yet they are so wowed by the kid, so it's a lovely way to make these prophecies be fulfilled.

>>Merry Lucero:
St. Mary's is the mother of Catholic parishes in the Valley. Founded in 1881, and since 1914, staffed by Franciscan Friars, or as Father Alonso calls them, the boys in brown.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
They were German foundations by German Franciscans who came, thank God, to fill in the gap, where there were no other Franciscans around. They came over and we made an appeal. We said, hey, guys, fellow Franciscans, we've run out of guys here, can you send some over?

>>Merry Lucero:
In the early 1900's, the windows at St. Mary's were crafted in St. Louis and brought here by their maker, Emile Frei.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
We tracked down the actual shop that turned them out and went to them. I think the grandson was still there and so, yeah, they said that he had brought them out, he assembled them in St. Louis and came out on the train with these things in wooden crates holding on to everything, chugga chugga chugga.

>>John Phillips:
They're known for being very nice windows. These windows in particular are one of the better sets I had ever seen them do. They are extraordinary windows.

>>Merry Lucero:
Each piece of stained glass is hand painted and fired in a
1,200-degree kiln several times until the paint becomes part of the glass. Set in wooden frames, the glass and lead have withstood the Phoenix heat for more than 90 years. But time and the renovation of the new Phoenix Civic Plaza across the street caused concern.

>>Jeffrey Campbell:
The foundation was all un-reinforced masonry. There's no steel rebars in our foundations of any kind. Subsequently the building is more susceptible to vibration and any damage that might occur because of the construction next door.

>>Merry Lucero:
So some art glass experts were called in.

>>John Phillips:
We found multiple bulging where the window bows in and out. There were broken out pieces. The frames are in need of conditioning. They've cracked and dried out and repainted. We had some previous repairs that were coming undone that we had to do.

>>Merry Lucero:
Phillips and his craftsmen began the tricky procedure of removing the windows. Then set up shop on site at St. Mary's.

>>John Phillips:
Usually about every 100, 125 years, you need to completely re-lead them. Take them apart piece by piece.

>>Merry Lucero:
But generally, St. Mary's windows were in good condition.

>>John Phillips:
Part of having stained glass windows is you have to maintain them. They're not where you put them in and let go. You have to continually be doing maintenance on them. Fortunately this building and this diocese is real good about that.

>>Fr. Alonso de Blas:
There was quite a sacrifice in our obtaining them and revering them and of course, part of it is, yes, people have the need for continuity. Their grandparents have seen them. In fact, some of their grandparents' names are up here.

>>John Phillips:
I think they see the building as a very important part of Phoenix as it is today. I think they also see it as an important part of the future ongoing. And it is. It's a jewel, in the heart of downtown Phoenix.

>>Merry Lucero:
And the jewel-like stained glass windows of St. Mary's Basilica shine once again, restored as the view that parishioners can look into and through as they travel on their own spiritual journies.

>>Cary Pfeffer:
And thanks for joining us on this Tuesday evening. I'm Cary Pfeffer.

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