Horizon, Host: Ted Simons

October 17, 2006


Host: Michael Grant

Flu season


  • The flu vaccine should be in good supply this year. We talk about flu season, vaccination programs, nasal influenza vaccine versus the shot, and general flu prevention.
Guests:
  • Joe Shirley - Navajo Nation presidential candidate and current incumbent
  • Dr. Bob England - Director, Maricopa County Public Health Department
Category: Medical/Health

View Transcript
Michael Grant:
Tonight on Horizon, the flu vaccine should be in good supply this year. We talk about flu season, vaccination programs, nasal influenza vaccine versus the shot, and general flu prevention. Plus the first of two interviews with candidates for president of the Navajo Nation. Tonight, President Joe Shirley. Those stories next on Horizon.

Announcer:
Horizon is made possible by the contributions from the friends of 8. Members of your Arizona PBS Station. Thank you.

Michael Grant:
Good evening, welcome to Horizon. I'm Michael Grant. In the news today, Arizona has been ranked last among all states when it comes to intelligence. The ranking came from Morgan Quitno Press, a private research and publishing company. Vermont was listed as the smartest state in the nation. Arizona is at the bottom, behind Nevada, Mississippi, California and Alaska. The ratings are based on 21 elementary and secondary indicators, such as graduation rates, test scores, teacher pay and class size.

Michael Grant:
The Grand Canyon State Poll by NAU's Social Research Laboratory is out with a survey of likely Arizona voters. The study finds that Governor Napolitano and Senator Jon Kyl are in strong positions to be reelected in November. In the poll, 70\% or more of likely voters say they will vote to increase Arizona's minimum wage, prop 202: will vote in favor of humane treatment of farm animals, prop 204; and will vote to prevent illegal immigrants from accessing state-sponsored educational and child-care, that's prop 300. Both anti-smoking propositions 201 and 206 are favored to pass, as are the ballot measures prohibiting same-sex marriage and restricting government use of eminent domain. Surveyed voters say they will reject the measure to award a randomly selected voter with $1-million.

Michael Grant:
If you haven't gotten it already, public health officials say it is time to start thinking about your annual flu vaccination. There have been some shortages of vaccine in past years but that should not be a concern this time around. This year, plenty of supply is expected, even though the demand for vaccination and the peak of the season can be difficult to predict. Here now to talk about influenza and related topics Dr. Bob England, director of Maricopa County's Public Health Department and Will Humble, Deputy Director of Public Health Arizona Department of Health Services. Gentleman, good to see you. We want to focus on the flu. How about the West Nile virus?

Will Humble:
We're at the tail end of the West Nile virus here in the valley and Southern Arizona. We have more cases than anticipated. I think we'll have an update tomorrow where we are going over 100. We have probably between 110, 115 cases statewide. These are serious cases of West Nile virus. Not just mild illnesses. In some cases we have encephalitis and four deaths. There are spots to avoid the pesky mosquitoes in the evening and morning.

Michael Grant:
Well, let's hope we're successful on that. Let's shift to flu. Do we have any reported cases in the state?

Will Humble:
No cases of flu illness yet in the state. California had a couple of cases. Louisiana has sporadic cases. Those were the first two states to identify flu, but nothing in Arizona.

Bob England:
It's around the corner. People should get their flu shots now and rather than wait until they hear about flu cases getting here. Your body needs awhile to produce antibodies to get ready to fight off potential infection with the flu. Get your flu shots now.

Michael Grant:
Why is it difficult to predict with any kind of precision when the flu season will have onset?

Bob England: The precise peek and onset of the flu is variation from year to year. When you step back and look at it overall, flu is one of the most predictable things in the world of infectious disease. Every year we have an epidemic of influenza. You know it's going to come. There's a flu shot that most of us is 80\% protective in a given year. Why not avail yourself of that.

Michael Grant:
Now everything I've heard is the vaccine supply is just great this year which stands in marked contrast in prior years. Am I hearing correctly?

Will Humble:
Yeah, we're on pace to have a record supply. 115 million doses nationwide. Five manufacturers which is a good thing. It adds up to be a record supply but it's not always a predictable demand, even though it's a plenty of flu vaccine for the season. At some point this fall people will talk about how everyone is sick at work or home and that's when they will need the flu shot. That's when it will appear to be in short supply. If you want the shot today, right now and can't get it, well, then that's the shortage, isn't it? There's plenty of vaccine throughout the season. If you're a high-risk person or little kids at home, now is the time to go out and get the shot before there's this peek demand with everybody at work talking about how everyone's sick.

Bob England:
And let's emphasize something about the high-risk people and everyone hears every year certain individuals need flu shots whether you are over 50 years old or a little kid or chronic diseases. It's just as important for anyone who lives with anybody in those categories to get flu shots. If anybody is a household contact. If I get my flu shot, like I said I'm 80\% protected against getting the flu. If somebody's 80 years old and infirmed that protection can plummet to 30\% or so. If you live with grandma, it's just as important for you to get your flu shot so you don't bring the flu home to grandma. Get it for the people around you not just for yourself.

Michael Grant:
Ideally you don't want to give the thing anyplace to land.

Bob England:
Exactly the more people who are immunized in any particular group the less place the virus can continued find to bounce to and it doesn't spread as well and you never get exposed in the first place.

Michael Grant:
What about the flu mist nasal vaccine is it becoming more popular and used.

Will Humble: Yeah, it's becoming more and more popular and they're making more every year. It's a live virus vaccine and recommended for ages 5 to 49. So it's for the--a good place to go to for that kind of vaccine is sort of middle-aged people, people with working and so forth.

Michael Grant:
Unless I love needles, am I missing anything here? Why--if I'm within that group, why in the world wouldn't I go with the nasal vaccine?

Will Humble:
It's a great choice. It's as affective if not slightly more than the injection vaccine. It's a great idea. I like the idea.

Bob England:
If you are phobic of needles, there's no reason not to get one if you're not in the group of most of us who can use the nasal vaccine.

Michael Grant:
We've talked about onset. What's the typical duration of the flu season?

Will Humble:
Well, it varies just like the peek onset. Last year in 2005 we had an early peek. We were actually peeking in November and December and by January we were headed down in terms of influenza. If you take year as an example we peeked for about six to eight weeks. In general, in Arizona we see a peak in late December, January and February. Last year was a early season compared to what's normal. When you say, bob, it's six to eight weeks for a general peek.

Bob England:
For the bulk of season but it can spread out for several months and our flu season can go well into later months into April, May even.

Michael Grant:
But most often peak most often time to the colder months?

Bob England:
Right. It's a winter phenomenon. January/February for us for the most part.

Michael Grant:
Do we know why?

Bob England:
Not really. People speculate that it may be because especially in colder climates people are inside more and so forth but we have our flu season when we do because the whole rest of the continent has it when we do. Whatever that infectious disease, whenever it originates, whenever it picks up steam, it will be here shortly. It's the flu. It spreads pretty fast.

Michael Grant:
Right, but nothing necessarily tying transmission of the vaccine to the weather conditions. It would seem to be--

Will Humble:
It happens every single year and no one knows for sure why.

Bob England: It predictable and happens in the colder months in the southern hemisphere. Their flu season is when we are having our summer. Australia is one of our tools for knowing what to expect in our next flu season because we're off cycle with each other by six months.

Michael Grant:
Now when is it too late to get a vaccine? Either I guess flu mist or the shot.

Bob England:
We always say it's never too late if you missed it. If it's still in the flu season, you could go ahead and get benefit. If you are going to get the flu shot, why waste half the benefit by waiting until the middle of the flu season to get it? Take advantage of the flu shot and you can get it all season long. It takes a few weeks once you get the flu shot until you're completely protected until your anti-bodies are built up. You want to get the flu shot a few weeks before people around you have gotten sick. If you haven't gotten it or gotten around to it and see your coworkers and friends beginning to get sick, of course it's not too late. You still might benefit. If you are one of the people who got the flu in March, you can get your flu shot up until February.

Michael Grant:
You just don't know that.

Bob England:
You just don't know. Get it early, get it now.

Michael Grant:
What are some vaccination programs that people can take advantage of?

Will Humble:
The first place to talk to is your physician's office especially if you have little kids at home talk to your pediatrician. That's the best place to get the shot. Go to the community information and referral service website at cir.org. They have the great website and find the nearest vaccination clinic in your neighborhood. It's a great resource.

Bob England:
If you don't have web access, you can call them in the Phoenix area at 602-263-8856. And anywhere else in the state it's 1-800-352-3792. Find out where the flu shots are in your area. And take advantage of that.

Michael Grant:
Final question, almost out of time, other general prevention things?

Will Humble:
It's that old low-tech old fashion stuff of wash your hands frequently during cold and flu season, cover your cough, with your sleeve not your hands. Don't go to work sick and don't send your kids to school sick.

Michael Grant:
Sounds like very good advice I mean even for a dumb state, I think we've come up with really good ideas.

Bob England:
Which one is a no-brainer?

Michael Grant:
All right. Bob England thanks for joining us. Will Humble, good to see you again.

Michael Grant:
Next month Navajo voters will go to the polls to elect a president. The Navajo Nation extends across Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Utah. The size of the area presents unique challenges and the Navajo Government has been described as the largest and most sophisticated form of Native-American Government. Issues that affect the Navajo Nation range from casino rights to the so-called Bennett freeze, which is a land dispute with the Hopi over access to religious sites. We've interviewed both candidates for the presidency. We talk with challenger Lynda Lovejoy tomorrow night. Tonight we speak with Incumbent President Joe Shirley who hopes to be re-elected. Shirley was first elected in 2002. He's 52 years old, has had extensive public service experience and received a Masters of Social Work here at ASU. Larry Lemmons spoke with President Shirley about the issues.

Larry Lemmons:
The first question is probably obvious. Why do you want to be reelected president of the Navajo Nation?

Joe Shirley:
When I campaign is on the continuity. I guess the position is that we don't--four years never is long enough to really start-up projects and bring them to fruition. It takes time to develop things. We need time to bring the casinos to fruition; get the rocket place, get the amusement park in place, the Bennett freeze, the land thawed out and it takes time to bring it out and it's premised on continuity. If the people give us another four years, we would have brought a lot of these to fruition and need to.

Larry Lemmons:
You were talking about the casinos. You were able to get gaming legislation passed recently. Why is that important?

Joe Shirley:
I think the casinos are very important. This administration has got it on the books. I campaigned on it back 2002 to get the legislation of the casinos on the books. We did. The people voted it in. We're talking about building the first casino in the next six months hopefully. It's important because we need revenues all the time. We're taking about six casinos on Navajo land. Once all six of the casinos are going and generating the revenues on the projection is $100 million a year in the nation's coffers. We talk about jobs. Jobs are important. I know the Navajos living in the metropolitan areas some want to move back to the Navajo land but there are no jobs, good jobs back home. I think the casinos will hopefully create some of these good jobs. Thinking about creating 4,000 jobs through our casinos. It's good because revenues of $100 million a year and 4,000 jobs.

Larry Lemmons:
Could you talk a little bit about the trade pack with Cuba? That was somewhat unusual.

Joe Shirley:
That was the Navajo Agricultural Products Industry, incorporated, NAPI. A big farm with the Navajo people a delegation from there with a couple of delegates I believe went to Cuba to strike an agreement to go to a trade and they will be buying some of the things that we grow and I think that's good. We need to be reaching out not only to other tribes here in the 50 United States but other powers that from outside of the United States and outside of that across the big waters in this case Cuba.

Larry Lemmons:
Was it making your point about the status of a sovereign nation considering what the American's Government is toward Cuba?

Joe Shirley:

Exactly. We need to move as a sovereign. We are a sovereign nation.

Larry Lemmons:
You talked about the freeze and do you anticipate any trouble with the Hopi Nation?

Joe Shirley:
It's important that the land be thawed out. It's been frozen too long. I think even the person who helped to freeze the thing; Mr. Bennett has alluded to that. He didn't anticipate the land to be thawed that long. It come July 8, this year. Its 40 years. It's too long. We've lost too many of our medicine people, too many of our elderly and as a result we lost some culture, the ceremonies, the stories and sacred songs. We lost a lot of young people because the land was frozen and couldn't build on it. We lost them to the urban centers and border towns. It's very important if we're going to begin to continue to save our culture for one thing, if we're going to bring back the young from the metropolitan areas back to Navajo land. It's very important that the land is thawed out. I think we're finally there keeping the fingers crossed, continue to pray about it. I do not anticipate any problems with the Hopi Nation. Of course we've agreed to, you know, do away with the court case and as a result the frozen, been a freeze. I don't anticipate any problems. I treat them like family. I understand that the Navajos and Hopi Nations were, you know, almost one at one time. You know this was before the foreign powers came into our midst and foreign powers came in and somewhere we separated ways. I would like to see us come back together. Because any more our kids are intermarried. We have Navajos who have grandchildren to some of the Hopi elders and vice versa. That being a given, why should we fight? We cannot. We all need to come back together and be the strong one and compliment each other. That's what the agreement is all about, that's what the thawing of the land is about. That's what I would like to see.

Larry Lemmons:
Did the Navajo voters have problems with the voter I.D. legislation? Had you had come out people not having appropriate I.D. or whatever and you had to turn some people away from voting?

Joe Shirley:
I believe one was turned away this--at the primary elections here at the state. I didn't like that. That really ought not to be the case. I don't think they--anyone out there should be passing legislation, you know, against people. In this case against my people. The same problems we're having The U.S. government trying to go for compensation because they mine uranium and hurt a lot of people. You know, they asked for I.D.'s and paperwork. It doesn't work with us. We're not the ones who invented writing as they have it. We are not the ones who are behind the paperwork, the paper trail that they've invented. As a result, we have problems, you know, with birth certificates, death certificates, addresses. Same thing with the voter I.D. we have the same problems. It's not our invention and they need to take that into consideration. In this legislation they need to take into consideration our culture. The intricacies of our nation.

Larry Lemmons:
One more question. What do you think are the most pressing issues for the Navajo Nation? And what do you expect to do in the first 100 days if you are reelected?

Joe Shirley:
First of all, I don't look at 100 days. They tried to hold me to that in this administration. I wasn't elected for 100 days. I'm elected for four years, you know. I don't look at that. That doesn't really mean anything to me. It doesn't work like that. But otherwise I look at priority that continues to be education along with economic development. We're going to give it everything we got to create more jobs. Like I said, we're well on our way with the casinos, with the Desert Power Plant, amusement park, and the other projects and firm and continue to have a home and create more jobs and see what we can do to put a dent in the 50\% unemployment rate we have. It's atrocious. People need to be working. The ultimate goal I have for my people is to one day get back to our independence. To stand on our independence. To stand on our own feet and be independent once more. Before the powers came across the water, we were very independent and very fierce and proud. That got taken away from us. And we were made very dependent. And a lot of my people are very dependent. As an individual person and a leader, I don't like that. I feel like we need to have working individuals. We need to have working families. We need to have fathers bring home the bacon so they say. Bring food to the table. Put shoes on little feet. That's what will make them independent. That's what brings the pride, you know. If we can get everybody to working, we have a good shot at getting back our independence not only as individuals, as families and communities but as nations. That's the ultimate goal. I think we get people working we're well on our way I like to say.

Larry Lemmons:
Thank you, President Shirley, for visiting us today.

Joe Shirley:
Thank you very much.

Michael Grant:
Tomorrow on Horizon, we'll have a discussion with Navajo Nation Presidential Challenger Lynda Lovejoy. Also tomorrow ASU President Michael crow talks about the School of Sustainability.


Larry Lemmons:
It's a U.S. senate race getting a lot of national attention. Republican Senator Jon Kyl and Democratic Challenger Jim Pederson will square off in an hour-long debate less than three weeks before the election. You'll see it Wednesday at 8:00 on 8.

Michael Grant:
And to learn more about the statewide and congressional races and propositions for the November 7 election Horizon has a special web site with that information. On our site, you can also watch the clean elections candidate debates.


Mike Sauceda:
To get the horizon vote 2006 website, go to the 8 website at azpbs.org once you're there click on vote 2006. That will take you to our horizon vote 2006 homepage which is loaded with features to help you cast your ballot. One of the prominent features is top videos. With top videos feature you can view past horizon election shows. The five tabs on the upper part of the screen allows you to access all the information you need on the propositions, statewide races, U.S. senate race, congressional races and cleans elections debates. For example if you click on proposition tab, you'll get a list of propositions that will appear on the November ballot. Click on one of propositions such as prop 100 you'll get taken to the text, analysis and arguments for and against the official ballot language and dates of town halls on measure. On the Horizon vote 2006 website you can also access on line videos, RSS feeds, podcast and Cronkite 8 Poll. A couple of other features to checkout my ballot a printable form to remind you of your choices as you vote and you can checkout when to watch Horizon election coverage.

Michael Grant:
All that and more on the Horizon website. Thank you very much for joining us on this Tuesday evening. I'm Michael Grant. Have a great one. Good night.

Navajo Presidential Candidate


  • Join HORIZON for an interview with Joe Shirley, current Navajo president who is running for reelection. Discussion topics include gaming rights, trade with Cuba, and other issues that affect the Navajo people.
Guests:
  • Joe Shirley - Navajo Nation presidential candidate and current incumbent
  • Dr. Bob England - Director, Maricopa County Public Health Department
Category: Elections   |   Keywords: Navajo nation, gaming, ,

View Transcript
Michael Grant:
Tonight on Horizon, the flu vaccine should be in good supply this year. We talk about flu season, vaccination programs, nasal influenza vaccine versus the shot, and general flu prevention. Plus the first of two interviews with candidates for president of the Navajo Nation. Tonight, President Joe Shirley. Those stories next on Horizon.

Announcer:
Horizon is made possible by the contributions from the friends of 8. Members of your Arizona PBS Station. Thank you.

Michael Grant:
Good evening, welcome to Horizon. I'm Michael Grant. In the news today, Arizona has been ranked last among all states when it comes to intelligence. The ranking came from Morgan Quitno Press, a private research and publishing company. Vermont was listed as the smartest state in the nation. Arizona is at the bottom, behind Nevada, Mississippi, California and Alaska. The ratings are based on 21 elementary and secondary indicators, such as graduation rates, test scores, teacher pay and class size.

Michael Grant:
The Grand Canyon State Poll by NAU's Social Research Laboratory is out with a survey of likely Arizona voters. The study finds that Governor Napolitano and Senator Jon Kyl are in strong positions to be reelected in November. In the poll, 70\% or more of likely voters say they will vote to increase Arizona's minimum wage, prop 202: will vote in favor of humane treatment of farm animals, prop 204; and will vote to prevent illegal immigrants from accessing state-sponsored educational and child-care, that's prop 300. Both anti-smoking propositions 201 and 206 are favored to pass, as are the ballot measures prohibiting same-sex marriage and restricting government use of eminent domain. Surveyed voters say they will reject the measure to award a randomly selected voter with $1-million.

Michael Grant:
If you haven't gotten it already, public health officials say it is time to start thinking about your annual flu vaccination. There have been some shortages of vaccine in past years but that should not be a concern this time around. This year, plenty of supply is expected, even though the demand for vaccination and the peak of the season can be difficult to predict. Here now to talk about influenza and related topics Dr. Bob England, director of Maricopa County's Public Health Department and Will Humble, Deputy Director of Public Health Arizona Department of Health Services. Gentleman, good to see you. We want to focus on the flu. How about the West Nile virus?

Will Humble:
We're at the tail end of the West Nile virus here in the valley and Southern Arizona. We have more cases than anticipated. I think we'll have an update tomorrow where we are going over 100. We have probably between 110, 115 cases statewide. These are serious cases of West Nile virus. Not just mild illnesses. In some cases we have encephalitis and four deaths. There are spots to avoid the pesky mosquitoes in the evening and morning.

Michael Grant:
Well, let's hope we're successful on that. Let's shift to flu. Do we have any reported cases in the state?

Will Humble:
No cases of flu illness yet in the state. California had a couple of cases. Louisiana has sporadic cases. Those were the first two states to identify flu, but nothing in Arizona.

Bob England:
It's around the corner. People should get their flu shots now and rather than wait until they hear about flu cases getting here. Your body needs awhile to produce antibodies to get ready to fight off potential infection with the flu. Get your flu shots now.

Michael Grant:
Why is it difficult to predict with any kind of precision when the flu season will have onset?

Bob England: The precise peek and onset of the flu is variation from year to year. When you step back and look at it overall, flu is one of the most predictable things in the world of infectious disease. Every year we have an epidemic of influenza. You know it's going to come. There's a flu shot that most of us is 80\% protective in a given year. Why not avail yourself of that.

Michael Grant:
Now everything I've heard is the vaccine supply is just great this year which stands in marked contrast in prior years. Am I hearing correctly?

Will Humble:
Yeah, we're on pace to have a record supply. 115 million doses nationwide. Five manufacturers which is a good thing. It adds up to be a record supply but it's not always a predictable demand, even though it's a plenty of flu vaccine for the season. At some point this fall people will talk about how everyone is sick at work or home and that's when they will need the flu shot. That's when it will appear to be in short supply. If you want the shot today, right now and can't get it, well, then that's the shortage, isn't it? There's plenty of vaccine throughout the season. If you're a high-risk person or little kids at home, now is the time to go out and get the shot before there's this peek demand with everybody at work talking about how everyone's sick.

Bob England:
And let's emphasize something about the high-risk people and everyone hears every year certain individuals need flu shots whether you are over 50 years old or a little kid or chronic diseases. It's just as important for anyone who lives with anybody in those categories to get flu shots. If anybody is a household contact. If I get my flu shot, like I said I'm 80\% protected against getting the flu. If somebody's 80 years old and infirmed that protection can plummet to 30\% or so. If you live with grandma, it's just as important for you to get your flu shot so you don't bring the flu home to grandma. Get it for the people around you not just for yourself.

Michael Grant:
Ideally you don't want to give the thing anyplace to land.

Bob England:
Exactly the more people who are immunized in any particular group the less place the virus can continued find to bounce to and it doesn't spread as well and you never get exposed in the first place.

Michael Grant:
What about the flu mist nasal vaccine is it becoming more popular and used.

Will Humble: Yeah, it's becoming more and more popular and they're making more every year. It's a live virus vaccine and recommended for ages 5 to 49. So it's for the--a good place to go to for that kind of vaccine is sort of middle-aged people, people with working and so forth.

Michael Grant:
Unless I love needles, am I missing anything here? Why--if I'm within that group, why in the world wouldn't I go with the nasal vaccine?

Will Humble:
It's a great choice. It's as affective if not slightly more than the injection vaccine. It's a great idea. I like the idea.

Bob England:
If you are phobic of needles, there's no reason not to get one if you're not in the group of most of us who can use the nasal vaccine.

Michael Grant:
We've talked about onset. What's the typical duration of the flu season?

Will Humble:
Well, it varies just like the peek onset. Last year in 2005 we had an early peek. We were actually peeking in November and December and by January we were headed down in terms of influenza. If you take year as an example we peeked for about six to eight weeks. In general, in Arizona we see a peak in late December, January and February. Last year was a early season compared to what's normal. When you say, bob, it's six to eight weeks for a general peek.

Bob England:
For the bulk of season but it can spread out for several months and our flu season can go well into later months into April, May even.

Michael Grant:
But most often peak most often time to the colder months?

Bob England:
Right. It's a winter phenomenon. January/February for us for the most part.

Michael Grant:
Do we know why?

Bob England:
Not really. People speculate that it may be because especially in colder climates people are inside more and so forth but we have our flu season when we do because the whole rest of the continent has it when we do. Whatever that infectious disease, whenever it originates, whenever it picks up steam, it will be here shortly. It's the flu. It spreads pretty fast.

Michael Grant:
Right, but nothing necessarily tying transmission of the vaccine to the weather conditions. It would seem to be--

Will Humble:
It happens every single year and no one knows for sure why.

Bob England: It predictable and happens in the colder months in the southern hemisphere. Their flu season is when we are having our summer. Australia is one of our tools for knowing what to expect in our next flu season because we're off cycle with each other by six months.

Michael Grant:
Now when is it too late to get a vaccine? Either I guess flu mist or the shot.

Bob England:
We always say it's never too late if you missed it. If it's still in the flu season, you could go ahead and get benefit. If you are going to get the flu shot, why waste half the benefit by waiting until the middle of the flu season to get it? Take advantage of the flu shot and you can get it all season long. It takes a few weeks once you get the flu shot until you're completely protected until your anti-bodies are built up. You want to get the flu shot a few weeks before people around you have gotten sick. If you haven't gotten it or gotten around to it and see your coworkers and friends beginning to get sick, of course it's not too late. You still might benefit. If you are one of the people who got the flu in March, you can get your flu shot up until February.

Michael Grant:
You just don't know that.

Bob England:
You just don't know. Get it early, get it now.

Michael Grant:
What are some vaccination programs that people can take advantage of?

Will Humble:
The first place to talk to is your physician's office especially if you have little kids at home talk to your pediatrician. That's the best place to get the shot. Go to the community information and referral service website at cir.org. They have the great website and find the nearest vaccination clinic in your neighborhood. It's a great resource.

Bob England:
If you don't have web access, you can call them in the Phoenix area at 602-263-8856. And anywhere else in the state it's 1-800-352-3792. Find out where the flu shots are in your area. And take advantage of that.

Michael Grant:
Final question, almost out of time, other general prevention things?

Will Humble:
It's that old low-tech old fashion stuff of wash your hands frequently during cold and flu season, cover your cough, with your sleeve not your hands. Don't go to work sick and don't send your kids to school sick.

Michael Grant:
Sounds like very good advice I mean even for a dumb state, I think we've come up with really good ideas.

Bob England:
Which one is a no-brainer?

Michael Grant:
All right. Bob England thanks for joining us. Will Humble, good to see you again.

Michael Grant:
Next month Navajo voters will go to the polls to elect a president. The Navajo Nation extends across Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Utah. The size of the area presents unique challenges and the Navajo Government has been described as the largest and most sophisticated form of Native-American Government. Issues that affect the Navajo Nation range from casino rights to the so-called Bennett freeze, which is a land dispute with the Hopi over access to religious sites. We've interviewed both candidates for the presidency. We talk with challenger Lynda Lovejoy tomorrow night. Tonight we speak with Incumbent President Joe Shirley who hopes to be re-elected. Shirley was first elected in 2002. He's 52 years old, has had extensive public service experience and received a Masters of Social Work here at ASU. Larry Lemmons spoke with President Shirley about the issues.

Larry Lemmons:
The first question is probably obvious. Why do you want to be reelected president of the Navajo Nation?

Joe Shirley:
When I campaign is on the continuity. I guess the position is that we don't--four years never is long enough to really start-up projects and bring them to fruition. It takes time to develop things. We need time to bring the casinos to fruition; get the rocket place, get the amusement park in place, the Bennett freeze, the land thawed out and it takes time to bring it out and it's premised on continuity. If the people give us another four years, we would have brought a lot of these to fruition and need to.

Larry Lemmons:
You were talking about the casinos. You were able to get gaming legislation passed recently. Why is that important?

Joe Shirley:
I think the casinos are very important. This administration has got it on the books. I campaigned on it back 2002 to get the legislation of the casinos on the books. We did. The people voted it in. We're talking about building the first casino in the next six months hopefully. It's important because we need revenues all the time. We're taking about six casinos on Navajo land. Once all six of the casinos are going and generating the revenues on the projection is $100 million a year in the nation's coffers. We talk about jobs. Jobs are important. I know the Navajos living in the metropolitan areas some want to move back to the Navajo land but there are no jobs, good jobs back home. I think the casinos will hopefully create some of these good jobs. Thinking about creating 4,000 jobs through our casinos. It's good because revenues of $100 million a year and 4,000 jobs.

Larry Lemmons:
Could you talk a little bit about the trade pack with Cuba? That was somewhat unusual.

Joe Shirley:
That was the Navajo Agricultural Products Industry, incorporated, NAPI. A big farm with the Navajo people a delegation from there with a couple of delegates I believe went to Cuba to strike an agreement to go to a trade and they will be buying some of the things that we grow and I think that's good. We need to be reaching out not only to other tribes here in the 50 United States but other powers that from outside of the United States and outside of that across the big waters in this case Cuba.

Larry Lemmons:
Was it making your point about the status of a sovereign nation considering what the American's Government is toward Cuba?

Joe Shirley:

Exactly. We need to move as a sovereign. We are a sovereign nation.

Larry Lemmons:
You talked about the freeze and do you anticipate any trouble with the Hopi Nation?

Joe Shirley:
It's important that the land be thawed out. It's been frozen too long. I think even the person who helped to freeze the thing; Mr. Bennett has alluded to that. He didn't anticipate the land to be thawed that long. It come July 8, this year. Its 40 years. It's too long. We've lost too many of our medicine people, too many of our elderly and as a result we lost some culture, the ceremonies, the stories and sacred songs. We lost a lot of young people because the land was frozen and couldn't build on it. We lost them to the urban centers and border towns. It's very important if we're going to begin to continue to save our culture for one thing, if we're going to bring back the young from the metropolitan areas back to Navajo land. It's very important that the land is thawed out. I think we're finally there keeping the fingers crossed, continue to pray about it. I do not anticipate any problems with the Hopi Nation. Of course we've agreed to, you know, do away with the court case and as a result the frozen, been a freeze. I don't anticipate any problems. I treat them like family. I understand that the Navajos and Hopi Nations were, you know, almost one at one time. You know this was before the foreign powers came into our midst and foreign powers came in and somewhere we separated ways. I would like to see us come back together. Because any more our kids are intermarried. We have Navajos who have grandchildren to some of the Hopi elders and vice versa. That being a given, why should we fight? We cannot. We all need to come back together and be the strong one and compliment each other. That's what the agreement is all about, that's what the thawing of the land is about. That's what I would like to see.

Larry Lemmons:
Did the Navajo voters have problems with the voter I.D. legislation? Had you had come out people not having appropriate I.D. or whatever and you had to turn some people away from voting?

Joe Shirley:
I believe one was turned away this--at the primary elections here at the state. I didn't like that. That really ought not to be the case. I don't think they--anyone out there should be passing legislation, you know, against people. In this case against my people. The same problems we're having The U.S. government trying to go for compensation because they mine uranium and hurt a lot of people. You know, they asked for I.D.'s and paperwork. It doesn't work with us. We're not the ones who invented writing as they have it. We are not the ones who are behind the paperwork, the paper trail that they've invented. As a result, we have problems, you know, with birth certificates, death certificates, addresses. Same thing with the voter I.D. we have the same problems. It's not our invention and they need to take that into consideration. In this legislation they need to take into consideration our culture. The intricacies of our nation.

Larry Lemmons:
One more question. What do you think are the most pressing issues for the Navajo Nation? And what do you expect to do in the first 100 days if you are reelected?

Joe Shirley:
First of all, I don't look at 100 days. They tried to hold me to that in this administration. I wasn't elected for 100 days. I'm elected for four years, you know. I don't look at that. That doesn't really mean anything to me. It doesn't work like that. But otherwise I look at priority that continues to be education along with economic development. We're going to give it everything we got to create more jobs. Like I said, we're well on our way with the casinos, with the Desert Power Plant, amusement park, and the other projects and firm and continue to have a home and create more jobs and see what we can do to put a dent in the 50\% unemployment rate we have. It's atrocious. People need to be working. The ultimate goal I have for my people is to one day get back to our independence. To stand on our independence. To stand on our own feet and be independent once more. Before the powers came across the water, we were very independent and very fierce and proud. That got taken away from us. And we were made very dependent. And a lot of my people are very dependent. As an individual person and a leader, I don't like that. I feel like we need to have working individuals. We need to have working families. We need to have fathers bring home the bacon so they say. Bring food to the table. Put shoes on little feet. That's what will make them independent. That's what brings the pride, you know. If we can get everybody to working, we have a good shot at getting back our independence not only as individuals, as families and communities but as nations. That's the ultimate goal. I think we get people working we're well on our way I like to say.

Larry Lemmons:
Thank you, President Shirley, for visiting us today.

Joe Shirley:
Thank you very much.

Michael Grant:
Tomorrow on Horizon, we'll have a discussion with Navajo Nation Presidential Challenger Lynda Lovejoy. Also tomorrow ASU President Michael crow talks about the School of Sustainability.


Larry Lemmons:
It's a U.S. senate race getting a lot of national attention. Republican Senator Jon Kyl and Democratic Challenger Jim Pederson will square off in an hour-long debate less than three weeks before the election. You'll see it Wednesday at 8:00 on 8.

Michael Grant:
And to learn more about the statewide and congressional races and propositions for the November 7 election Horizon has a special web site with that information. On our site, you can also watch the clean elections candidate debates.


Mike Sauceda:
To get the horizon vote 2006 website, go to the 8 website at azpbs.org once you're there click on vote 2006. That will take you to our horizon vote 2006 homepage which is loaded with features to help you cast your ballot. One of the prominent features is top videos. With top videos feature you can view past horizon election shows. The five tabs on the upper part of the screen allows you to access all the information you need on the propositions, statewide races, U.S. senate race, congressional races and cleans elections debates. For example if you click on proposition tab, you'll get a list of propositions that will appear on the November ballot. Click on one of propositions such as prop 100 you'll get taken to the text, analysis and arguments for and against the official ballot language and dates of town halls on measure. On the Horizon vote 2006 website you can also access on line videos, RSS feeds, podcast and Cronkite 8 Poll. A couple of other features to checkout my ballot a printable form to remind you of your choices as you vote and you can checkout when to watch Horizon election coverage.

Michael Grant:
All that and more on the Horizon website. Thank you very much for joining us on this Tuesday evening. I'm Michael Grant. Have a great one. Good night.


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