July 2, 2014
Host: Ted Simons
50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act
- The Civil Rights Act was enacted on July 2, 1964 and prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. It also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation. Civil rights activist Dr. Warren Stewart of the First Institutional Baptist Church in Phoenix and Matthew Whitaker, an Arizona State University Foundation professor of History, will discuss the law and its impact.
- Dr. Warren Stewart - Civil Rights Activist, First Institutional Baptist Church
- Matthew Whitaker - History Professor, Arizona State University Foundation
| Keywords: government
Ted Simons: The Civil Rights Act was signed into law 50 years ago today, on July 2nd, 1964. The law prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. It also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation. Joining us tonight to discuss the Civil Rights Act are Dr. Warren Stewart of the First Institutional Baptist Church in Phoenix, and Matthew Whitaker, an ASU Foundation Professor of History. Good to have you both here. Thank you so much for joining us. 50-year mark for the Civil Rights Act. Your thoughts?
Warren Stewart: It was a watershed event, and it is still producing freedom movements and liberation movements not only in this nation but all over the world.
Ted Simons: And how is it doing that? What did the Civil Rights Act do?
Warren Stewart: Well, it brought about emancipation and liberation in the modern day era. It said that Jim Crow laws, laws that affected people because of the color of their skin were no longer legal in these United States of America. So it was a major piece of legislation.
Ted Simons: Major piece of legislation, did the impact of this legislation, could you feel it immediately, or was this one of these things that developed over time?
Matthew Whitaker: Well, I think you could feel the euphoria, certainly among the activists community about the importance of having it enacted, because this was the culmination of 100 years of struggle from the beginning of the -- The end of the Civil War all the way up until 1964. And it created some monumental and historic things. One of the things that it created was the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. And Title VII was very important as well. That's one of those staples that we take for granted right now, so it was certainly felt at the time in terms of its importance. Its impact I think wouldn't be realized or felt for a little bit later on.
Ted Simons: And I want to get back to that in a second here, but you were alive for this. You were still a kid, but were you alive. What do you remember about all this?
Warren Stewart: Well I was from Kansas, and so believe it or not, in Kansas, many African-Americans were Republicans. And so the fact that a Democratic, Southern President pushed this bill through, that was in many cases the turning point for I know my family, and others to move and look at the Democratic party that now was fighting for the rights of people of color, of African-Americans yes.
Ted Simons: Were the older folks, were they pulling you aside and saying, this is what’s-- Were they explaining what was happening, or were things happening so fast it was hard to do something like that?
Warren Stewart: Well, I understood in Kansas, even though it is not a southern state, I experienced Jim Crow laws; I had to go to the movie theater and watch it from the balcony. My grandfather was a chef at the leading restaurant in our town of Coffeyville, Kansas, though he cooked the food, got the reputation, we never could eat in the restaurant where he cooked the food. So I experienced this. I knew what was going on.
Ted Simons: You mentioned the Democratic shift here as far as attention is concerned. The impact of the JFK assassination and LBJ's ascendancy how did all that play into getting this enacted into law?
Matthew Whitaker: Well I think it created a sense of urgency. It reified and affirmed to people that America was at a critical juncture and there was a sense of urgency for changing, riding the ship, moving in the right direction, staying true to our principles. The rhetoric that was espoused in our documents of freedom, so those things I think it scared folks quite frankly into understanding that we were the fork in the road. And who we were as a nation would be determined by which direction we went.
Ted Simons: And the protests at the time, the impact of those?
Matthew Whitaker: Tremendous. Frederick Douglas said a hundred years earlier, there's no progress without struggle. Folks understood that even good-intentioned people, good-intentioned leaders needed to be empowered and compelled to act, and they could only do that by people protesting, speaking out on the street in their neighborhoods at the state level across the country.
Ted Simons: Agree?
Warren Stewart: And what we saw on television, I mean fire hoses rolling children, black children down the street, dogs tearing clothes away from people who simply wanted to be treated as equal that changed the sentiment of Civil Rights for the majority of the nation and even the world. And I think it was embarrassing, that motivated President Johnson, we can't let this happen.
Ted Simons: With that in mind, I mean I'm asking your memories and what family and friends and associates were thinking at the time, as far as white folks, in Coffeyville, Kansas, did you hear -- Was there much of a reaction? Was it anger, was it stubbornness? Do you remember anything?
Warren Stewart: Shortly after that Coffeyville, Kansas, elected the first African-American mayor of the city, and that was in the early 70's. He was a mortician. So the city rose up and said, we're going to be a part of this new movement for Civil Rights for all people.
Ted Simons: And again, we talk about what happened at the time, the protests and the change in leadership there at the White House, and the sense of urgency. You know 10 years earlier it was Brown versus the Board of Education. Was that something that was a bit of a launching pad for something like this?
Matthew Whitaker: Certainly. You know many folks say the Civil Rights Movement started the minute African-Americans got into college. But when you look at Brown versus Board of Education in many cases that was the trigger. You know, then you had the Montgomery bus boycott in '55 and ‘56, there were a number of different things that were unfolding over time, but certainly '53 was really the launching pad for the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Warren Stewart: And it's ironic that Kansas was a place, Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, I went to integrated schools all of my life, but could not eat in a restaurant and could not go to the movie theater and sit on the main floor. In spite of what happened in Kansas in 1954.
Ted Simons: But did it feel like there was movement? Even before the Civil Rights Act was signed? With Brown v. Board of Education, in Kansas, did it feel like things were moving?
Warren Stewart: Yes. Yes. The schools became integrated. Yes.
Ted Simons: And that again became a launching pad, but you could feel that happening?
Warren Stewart: Yes, very much so.
Ted Simons: As far as now over the years, has the Civil Rights Act done what it was designed to do?
Matthew Whitaker: Yeah, that's the million dollar question. Martin Luther King actually said in a speech in Phoenix at Tanner AME Church and then at the Goodwill auditorium at Arizona State University in 1964, he said this is the first step. We have a long way to go. Not everyone is going to accept this right away. Implementation is going to be very important. It's going to take a long time to implement. There's going to be resistance. And that resistance is going to manifest itself in lots of different ways, often times in extra legal measures that undermine the civil rights movement. He was a prophet, he was prophetic, that’s exactly what has happened. So much so, that some folks can't even witness or recognize inequality or the duplicity or the racism. Because it doesn't look like it did back then with the dogs and the signs etc etc.
Ted Simons: So with that in mind, the Civil Rights Act -- Everyone would agree I believe most people would agree an achievement, progress, forward. Forward enough, forward the way they thought at the time it would move us forward? What do you think?
Matthew Whitaker: I think at the time, yes. The folks that I’ve-- At the time, yes. The folks I’ve interviewed, they said that you know in hindsight, when they were younger, sure, they might have thought about different -- They underestimated the importance of economics in the movement, things of that nature. But at the time it was monumental. It's hard to explain to folks now how difficult it was to get the Civil Rights Act in the first place. It took 100 years of bitter struggle to get the civil rights act. And a courageous president who stood in front of Congress and said, quoting Martin Luther King, we shall overcome. His own party was angry with him with that , particularly folks in the south.
Ted Simons: Is that what you found, same kind of recollection for you as far what you remember?
Warren Stewart: Very much so. The last public speech Lyndon B Johnson, 1972, December, in a symposium on civil rights at the LBJ library, he said there was still injustice, there was still intolerance, we must have courage, our work continues, we shall overcome my friends. The last public speech he made, he died a month later of a heart attack.
Ted Simons: That’s 1972, we are now 2014. Would he still make that speech today?
Warren Stewart: He would need to make it, Martin Luther King would need to make it, and we have to make it. Because the statistics show that racism, systemic racism in health and education, economic development, in the environment. There's so much systemic racism -- In immigration. Look what's going on in the Congress right now. Speaker Boehner needs to have the courage of a Lyndon B. Johnson and end this challenge of immigration reform.
Ted Simons: You had talked about, you referred earlier to the fact that people don't recognize the same kind of racism. It's maybe the same old line in a brand-new bottle if you will. Talk more about that.
Matthew Whitaker: Well some of it is still there. When you see discrimination and poor treatment of immigrants, when you see violence in our streets, when you see horrible relationships between law enforcement and urban communities in some cases, when you look at Oscar Grant, when you look at Trayvon Martin, when you look at hate crimes, and you look at the crimes against the LGBT community, these type of discriminations are still here. They haven't gone away. I think there's lots of progress, we have Jay Z now, we have Beyonce, I like Beyonce, I couldn't possibly be racist! You have this sort of situation in the United States now where you have these statistical outliers sociologists would say right, but if you look at every indices as the pastor has indicated, people of color are still at the bottom of all of them. And the question has to be, why? We don't come out of the womb unequal.
Ted Simons: Yet – And yet let me ask this -- You said it took 100 years, 100 years to get to that Civil Rights Act. If it took that long, and race is a hard fabric in American history, some would argue it's not bad. The development and the progress we've seen since 1964. Is that a speechist argument is that valid?
Matthew Whitaker: No it's not bad. We've had you know obvious substantive progress. But to the degree that we need to go further, that should show folks how far we needed to go in 1964. We were a long way away, and we are still a long way away from parity. Not just changing laws, we can't be lost on that. I think that's what some of the millennials struggle with, it's not just about changing laws, it's actually about parity and equality. We’re not there.
Ted Simons: When you talk to younger folks these days, first of all, do they understand the impact of the Civil Rights Act?
Warren Stewart: Not automatically. We have to sit down and that's why this anniversary of the Civil Rights Act is so important, to explain to them the opportunities, the doors open for you now, came at a high cost to your ancestors, to political leaders, and you must continue the fight to make sure we don't go in reverse.
Ted Simons: Do you get the same impression as the younger people these days just aren't quite as aware as maybe they should?
Matthew Whitaker: Yes, I agree with that. I think this generation, the millenials in particular, are the most tolerant and inclusive generation we've ever had, but I think we have failed in some cases by not giving them the proper lens and the equipment to be able to see where their problems are. They don't see them. They're looking for antiquated ways of identifying racism. They're looking for that, and as a consequence they're not seeing it. So they're assuming somehow that the problems aren't there. And that's what we have to educate and lead and show them.
Ted Simons: If they're not seeing it as -- With these different kind of glasses on, does that mean that these problems can be solved in a different way? Does that make sense? In other words, we saw protests; we saw crazy stuff there in the 60's. Just -- You mentioned black and white films and the dogs and the whole 9 yards. We're not seeing that these days for the most part. Without seeing that, how do you keep progress?
Warren Stewart: Well, with the partisanship and the intransigent that we're experiencing in Washington, DC and on the state levels, just yesterday people with flags turned back buses full of immigrant children and women trying to go to a federal facility. And they said we don't want you here. That frightened me. If we're not careful the young people don't pick up the baton we will go in reverse.
Ted Simons: Are the young people ready to pick up that baton?
Matthew Whitaker: I think they're equipped in ways that previous generations weren't. And they're not equipped in ways that previous generations were. And that -- Bridging that gap is something that we have to do.
Ted Simons: Interesting, all right last question here-- Legacy of the Civil Rights Act. What do you think it is?
Matthew Whitaker: Openness and opportunity. The fact that I'm sitting here talking to you and I hold the position that I hold right now, I'm living, breathing proof of the effect of the Civil Rights Act.
Ted Simons: Legacy of the Civil Rights Act.
Warren Stewart: God is on the side of justice and liberty for all.
Ted Simons: Gentlemen, we thank you both for joining us. We appreciate it.
Warren Stewart: Thank you.
Matthew Whitaker: Thank you.
AZ Giving and Leading: Fresh Express
- We’ll show you how fresh fruits and vegetables are being bussed in to residents in South Phoenix and Tempe, where there is not much access to healthy produce.
| Keywords: giving
Ted Simons: In tonight's edition of Arizona Giving and Leading, fresh fruits and vegetables are a part of a balanced diet, but for many in one Phoenix neighborhood, those simple items are too expensive or unavailable. That is, until now. Producer Shana Fischer and photographer Juan Magana introduce us to the Fresh Express.
Shana Fischer: Every Thursday afternoon, a different kind of bus pulls into the parking lot at Crockett Elementary. The Fresh Express is a city bus that's been converted into a mobile produce stand. It's a welcome sight for the 600 students who live in the area, and whose parents struggle on a daily basis to provide enough food. According to Balsz District Superintendent Jeff Smith, 90% of the students qualify for free lunch.
Jeff Smith: We live in a food desert, which means that there aren't easy ways for people to get fresh produce in their area. They end up going to convenience stores, or to fast food restaurants for their food, and that's just not healthy.
Shana Fischer: The bus is the brainchild of the discovery triangle development corporation. Its goal is to revitalize a 25-square-mile area that stretches from downtown Phoenix to downtown Tempe. The bus kicked off operations in March, and corporation President Don Keuth says the response is overwhelming.
Don Keuth: The reaction has been fantastic. The parents that have come, the staff and the faculty of the schools, the seniors that we've served, this is a godsend to them. It brings them stuff that they just don't get general access to.
Shana Fischer: Inside the refrigerated bus are dozens of bins filled with donated vegetables and fruit from peddlers sons, a produce distributor. You can find everything from peppers, to melons.
Don Keuth: Well we would say that we provide not only very fresh and healthy food, but we do it at a very affordable price. So we have been able to price this in a way that it's all kind of piecemeal, we don't have to weigh things, so we can give, we'll sell three avocados for $1, three tomatoes for $1.
Shana Fischer: For many families, it's not just economics that makes food shopping challenging. Many don't have transportation, so having the food come to them is crucial.
Marco Cazares: Well I would say it's the best thing in life. You know it's where you can go, pick out your favorite foods, and smell what you like and have the most part of fun picking out the fruits and vegetables you like.
Shana Fischer: And Keuth says the bus is the key ingredient in the recipe to long-term success for these kids.
Don Keuth: You know one of the benefits of this is if we can help some kids eat healthier foods, have a healthier lifestyle, that may translate into being a better student. And by being a better student their outcome in life can change.
Ted Simons: The Fresh Express stops at several other schools in the Balsz district, along with a number of senior centers. The Fresh Express just received approval to accept snap's EBT cards and there are plans to offer mobile health clinics in the future.
Gas Prices/4th of July Travel
- The summer travel season is reaching its peak with the Fourth of July holiday coming up. In Arizona, gas prices are on the upswing. Linda Gorman of AAA Arizona will discuss gas prices and the number of Arizonans expected to head out for the 4th of July weekend.
- Linda Gorman - AAA Arizona
| Keywords: business
Ted Simons: Gas prices are on the increase in Arizona and much of the country as the summer travel season approaches its peak with the 4th of July weekend. Linda Gorman of AAA Arizona joins us now to discuss gas prices and other things we need to know for the holiday weekend. Good to see you again.
Linda Gorman: Thank you for having me.
Ted Simons: Prices heading into the 4th of July weekend on the up huh?
Linda Gorman: They are, about seven cents since this time last week, but when you look at where we were this time last year, we're only up about 12 cents. But you’re right, prices are heading up there, about and $3.59 is the statewide average and July represents the highest month yet that we've paid all year.
Ted Simons: And compared to national prices?
Linda Gorman: National averages are a little higher, they're at about $3.67, so that’s about eight cents higher, there are a couple factors going on in the east right now that are tugging up those prices as well as in California, which holds the highest gas prices in the continental U.S.
Ted Simons: I was going to say, California folks are thinking about driving over there, prepare for the sticker shock. What was it $4.12 or something like that along those lines?
Linda Gorman: Yeah right above $4.10 a gallon depending on what part of California, but as soon as you hit that border, and even before in some cases you're going to definitely feel the sticker shock.
Ted Simons: Why are they so high?
Linda Gorman: California's typically always a bit higher than Arizona. They have stricter clean air laws there, so it costs more to produce that gasoline. It's cleaner burning and anybody who has visited California in the last few years versus say 10 years ago. You can notice a difference in the air, so that cleaner air does come at a price though when you look at your tank.
Ted Simons: Interesting, as far as Arizona is concerned, it sounded like June was a pretty low month overall. Correct?
Linda Gorman: Yes, June was low, it was actually very low. Second lowest in the last five years. So interesting situation what's going on with gas prices right now is typically we see our highest prices peak earlier. So around Memorial Day we start to see prices peak and sometimes that's the highest price we'll see all year. That didn't happen this year. The high prices were delayed a little month. We got through May pretty well, got through June really well and then July unfortunately this first week, the last week leading into July and the 4th of July holiday we’ve seen those prices tug up.
Ted Simons: So what happened there, why the change?
Linda Gorman: Well a couple of things, oil prices are really high right now, trading over $100 a barrel, closed at about $104 a barrel today. Tensions again in Iraq, not a new story, certainly old news. Tensions in Libya. As well as our first hurricane of the season, Tropical Storm Andrew -- Arthur, excuse me, is looking to make landfall Thursday or Friday. So what's happened is it's too soon to tell whether or not that tropical storm will impact any production. But most of those refineries along the East Coast will close down their facilities just as sort of a safeguard measure.
Ted Simons: Interesting. All right as far as Arizona is concerned, where are the highest and lowest prices in the state?
Linda Gorman: Scottsdale, east valley, highest, lowest are going to be Yuma, Tucson, some parts of the west valley. Metro Phoenix usually stands right around in the middle. You can definitely beat the statewide average if you do your homework. So while we always recommend that it doesn't make too much sense to drive too far out of your way, you definitely want to do your homework. Don't assume that the gas price that you see at your neighborhood, on the corner there is the best you're going to get.
Ted Smons: Even within the metro region, there are wide disparities?
Linda Gorman: I wouldn't say wide disparities. You know, five, six, seven cents a gallon, but that does add up. So there are many resources, many tools, AAA has one that can help you do your homework before you even leave the house.
Ted Simons: Are the prices, the increases that you're seeing, does AAA expect that to affect travel plans too much?
Linda Gorman: Not so much. You know you're looking at 12 cents a gallon, versus this time last year. So when you look at a 20 cent or a 20-gallon tank, we're not talking big dollars there, but it does add up. But we don't expect that it's going to impact travel, and in fact when you look at the numbers for this independence day, we're expecting nearly 800,000 Arizonans to be hitting the roads and the sky, so that's about a 1% increase over last year. But a 10% increase over Memorial Day. So when you think -- When you look in May we had fairly low prices, we have higher prices in July, that's just not deterring those people who want to celebrate for the 4th.
Ted Simons: All right, and usually we talked about this before, it's that $4 a gallon barrier where people start saying, I gotta knock it off a little bit.
Linda Gorman: Yeah, interesting it used to be $3 so.
Ted Simons: Yeah, now it’s 4.
Linda Gorman: It seems like a long time away, but yeah now it's $4, seems to be what we've seen as sort of the psychological tipping point where people really start to cut back.
Ted Simons: Any changes, what do you see now for the rest of the summer?
Linda Gorman: Well a lot of it depends on how active the hurricane season is. So NOAA had said that they predicted less active season than normal. So that could bode well or it could bode not so well. They’ve typically been right the last couple of years. Hurricanes are very important to prices because it can impact -- Even the threat of a hurricane as we're seeing this week can impact production, which can tug at demand and supplies and can artificially even raise those prices temporarily.
Ted Simons: And I guess the hurricane dynamic and what's happening in the Middle East, that particular metric, that's for the rest of the year as well, forget the summer, the rest of the year. A little volatile out there?
Linda Gorman: It is a little volatile, not as volatile as it has been in years past, and in particularly Arizona. If we were looking at five years or so ago when we had very limited supply coming into the state, we were very reliant on the west side, on the pipelines, we would be looking at a much more volatile situation. But it hasn't been as volatile in the past couple of years since we've had those pipeline expansions. But certainly any time throughout October, early November, hurricanes are always a threat.
Ted Simons: All right, good information. Good to see you again. Thanks for joining us.
Linda Gorman: Nice to see you. Thank you.